There was such a mystique among Europeans about the old Roman Empire because it left a lasting influence and was spread out across a great distance. It was very powerful and people respected it.

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Trade and travel declined after the fall of Rome because no government was around to keep the roads stable.
Who was the first "Holy Roman Emperor"? What were the connections between "The Empire" and "The Church"?
The first Holy Roman Emperor was Charlemagne. The Pope appointed him so there was a strong connection between the Church and the empire. The Church was considered above the empire just like heaven is of greater importance than earth.
Feudalism is system benefiting people that are higher up in the social class or are wealthy. Kings would give lords land. Lords would have knights work for them. The lords would swear loyalty to the king and the knights swear loyalty to the lords. Occasionally knights would get a small plot of land for their service. There were serfs working the lands that almost were slaves. This group included prisoners of war. There was a small group of freed people that had a certain practice such as craftsmen, artisans, and merchants. This group was the start of the middle class. With this system people were able to be controlled more easily. Political power belonged to the king and lords.
Strong kings and central governments were missing under the feudal system because lords took charge of the people in their land and did not want to listen to a king. Also the lords had fights between themselves over land so they were hard to control.
The Church and the Christian religion was so important to Europeans in the Middle Ages because it was like there second government. It controlled who became king in some instances. It also gave them a chance to ritually connect with their God.
The Church resembled the old Roman Empire had the Pope be in the position of the emperor. The bishops had control over districts just like old Roan governess had control of areas. Local priests preached to local people. The College of Cardinals was like the legislative branch. The Cardinals had to elect each new Pope. Also the church had its own laws for the members.
How did the ritual and sacraments of the Church establish a constant relationship with its individual members?
The ritual and sacraments of the Church established a constant relationship with its individual members by connecting them to God from birth to death. They believed that you needed these to go to heaven.
Under the Roman Catholic Church, all of Europe was divided into geographical divisions for the administration of Church affairs. Who were bishops and archbishops? What is the College of Cardinals?
Bishops were people who looked over a certain area. Arch bishops did this as well but they had more power and could judge bishops. The College of Cardinals was like the legislative branch and elected the new Pope.
Define "excommunication" and "interdiction". How did the Church use these in the struggle for power?
Excommunication was when someone was punished for something they did. They were not allowed to participate in sacraments, or rituals. This was how people believed would get you to heaven. Indications were very similar to excommunication. It affected geographical areas. These areas were not allowed to participate in the sacraments. This controlled lords who were not doing things the Church liked.
During the Middle Ages, where (or by what group of people) was the learning and knowledge of Europe kept alive?
What was the dominant philosophy of the Middle Ages called? Who was its most outstanding spokesman? What were its basic beliefs? How did that philosophy view life and learning?
Scholasticism was the philosophy of the Middle ages. Its basic beliefs were merging current knowledge and church knowledge. It"s main spokesman was St. Thomas Aquinas. Reason always gave way to the church"s thinking. This philosophy view the church always being correct with no fault. THis philosophy stunned learning because the church was always assumed correct.
What were the three estates of medieval European society and what was the primary duty of a member of each estate? How was this social organization challenged by the changing economy?
There were three estates in medieval European society. The first consisted of people from the Church. These were people like the Pope, priests, and monks. The Pope appointed the king and was very powerful. The others preached and took care of the churches. They had retreated from the corrupt world around them. This group was set apart and said to be appointed by God. The second state was the nobles. Their primary job was warriors. The third estate was the peasants. These people worked the land for the nobles. By the amount of free townspeople growing, this system was challenged it was not keeping up politically, economically or socially.
What were the guilds and how were they organized? How did the guilds improve the lot of freemen? How did they hold freemen down?
Guilds were a group of people who all were in the same practice. You had to join as an apprentice for a member. Then after that you would become a journeyman and you were paid for working for a member. Several years after, you were a member, also known as a master craftsman. Then you could control prices, how many people could work with you, and other business details. Guilds had a big influence on the business practices of the late Middle Ages. This controlled the people who could actually own their business. Guilds improved the lives of freeman by giving them a community and regulations of working. Guilds improved business and trade by having a strict class within them. It made trade more organized so more people could buy the goods. Guilds also restricted growth. By having such a strict social class within them, people could not start their own business until many years of work.

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Most of the labor of medieval Europe was done by what group of individuals? Why did they tolerate such a low status?
Most of the labor done in medieval Europe was by slave-like people called serfs. In return for this their lord gave them protection from barbarians and other lords.
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