The first law of thermodynamics says that power is conserved in chemistry processes. Power is not lost and new energy is no made. Because that example, in a car, the total energy given off is same to the energy driving the automobile forward and also the power that is dissipated as heat. Girlfriend can"t create energy that wasn"t over there to begin with.

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We cannot success in an power transaction. We cannot even break even. In every procedure that requires energy, some of the power is lost to the surroundings as heat. This way that no procedure is perfect efficient. The amount of power that have to be shed to the surroundings for the procedure to happen is nature"s heat tax, one unavoidable cut of every power transaction.
A perpetual motion maker moves perpetually without any type of energy input. The maker is not possible because if it to be to be in motion, it need to pay the warm tax with each movement. End time, it will certainly run down and stop moving.
You are burning fuel in her home and using the heat from the combustion to warm the air the is circulated in her home. As soon as you use an electric furnace, fuel is burned at the electric companies strength plant, climate converted to electricity. This electricity is moved to your residence through wires and also power substations. As soon as it reaches your home, the electrical energy needs come be converted to warmth to warmth the air the circulates your home. Every step should pay a heat tax. Utilizing a herbal gas has fewer steps, so the pays less of a warm tax.
A spontaneous procedure occurs there is no ongoing external intervention (such as the power of occupational by some outside force) for example, once you autumn a book in a gravitational field, the book spontaneously drops come the ground.
Explain the difference in between the spontaneity that a reaction (which depends on thermodynamics) and the rate at which the reaction occurs (which relies on kinetics). Have the right to a catalyst make a non voluntary reaction spontaneous?
In thermodynamics, the spontaneity the a reaction is the direction in which and the extent to i m sorry a chemical reaction proceeds. Kinetics is the rate of reaction, how rapid the reaction bring away place. A reaction might be thermodynamically spontaneous but kinetically sluggish at a offered temperature. Because that example, the conversion of diamond to graphite is spontaneous, however diamonds execute not come to be worthless quickly because the process is very kinetically slow. The rate of a voluntarily reaction have the right to be increased by the use of a catalyst, yet a non spontaneous reaction can not be do spontaneous by the usage of a catalyst. Catalysts influence only the price of reaction, no the spontaneity.
What is the precise an interpretation of entropy? What is the meaning of entropy being a state function?
Entropy (s) is a thermodynamic role that is proportional come the variety of energetically identical ways come arrange the components of a mechanism to attain a specific state. Entropy, choose enthalpy, is a state function. The worth depends only on the state of the system and also not on just how it reached that state. Therefore, for any type of process, the entropy is simply Delta S=S final- S initial.
Entropy the gas rises in a vacuum because the variety of possible states boosts (such as whereby the fragment is located)
Explain the difference between macro states (external arrangement of particles) and also micro claims (internal arrangement of particles)
Microstates room the variety of internal arrangements. This micro states offer rise to the same outside arrangements, or macro states. If there room three gas particles, A, B, and C, and also two containers, the truth that the very first container has actually two particles and the second container has one particle is a macro state. The fact that particles A and C room in the first container and also particle B is in the various other container is a micro state. There room at least as plenty of micro says as there room macro states.
The entropy of a state is proportional come the variety of energetically identical ways come arrange the contents of a device to accomplish a details state. This implies that the state with the highest entropy additionally has the greatest dispersal that energy.
Provide the an interpretation of the 2nd law the thermodynamics. Exactly how does the 2nd law explain why warmth travels from a substance at higher temperature come one at lower temperature?
Second legislation of thermodynamics says that for any type of spontaneous process, the entropy of the world increases. The criterion because that spontaneity is the entropy of the universe. Processes that rise the entropy that the universe, those that an outcome in a better dispersal or randomization that energy-occur spontaneously. Processes that diminish the entropy that the universe do not happen spontaneously. Heat travels native a substance of higher energy come one of reduced energy because the process disperses heat energy. The cooler object has less thermal energy, for this reason transferring heat from the warmer object outcomes in greater energy randomization. Power that was focused in the hot substance becomes distributed in the two substances.
What wake up to the entropy the a sample of matter when it alters from solid come liquid? From fluid to gas?
Entropy increases as a substance changes from hard to fluid to gas because the lot of molecule motion and thermal power is greatest in the gas phase and least in the hard phase.
Explain why water spontaneously freezes to form ice listed below 0C even though the entropy the the water decreases during the state transition. Why is the freeze of water no spontaneous over 0C?
When water freezes below O degrees C, the entropy the the water decreases, yet the procedure is spontaneous due to the fact that the entropy the the universe increases. The entropy that the system can decrease as long as the entropy that the surroundings rises by a higher amount. (Ssurr>Ssys) so the the overall entropy of the universe goes with a network increase. For fluid water freezing, the change in entropy that the system is an adverse because the water becomes more ordered. For Suniverse to it is in positive, Ssurr should be positive and also greater in absolute value or magnitude the Ssys. Freezing is one exothermic process, it gives off warm to the surroundings. If us think of entropy together the dispersal or randomization that energy, the release of heat energy by the device disperses that power into the surroundings. The freezing of water below 0 degrees celcius boosts the entropy that the universe due to the fact that the heat given off come the surroundings boosts the entropy of the next site to a sufficient degree to get rid of the entropy diminish in water. The freezing of water i do not care non spontaneous over 0 levels celcius, because the magnitude of the boost in the entropy the the surroundings because of the dispersal of power into the surroundings is temperature dependent. The greater the temperature, the smaller the percent increase in entropy because that a provided rise in temperature. Therefore, the influence of the warmth released come the surroundings by the freeze of water relies on the temperature of the surroundings-the higher the temperature, the smaller the impact.
Why carry out exothermic procedures tend to be spontaneous at low temperature? Why does their tendency toward spontaneity decrease with enhancing temperature?
Exothermic procedures tend to it is in spontaneous at low temperatures due to the fact that they increase the entropy of the surroundings. Due to the fact that Ssur=-deltaHsys/T, as temperature increases, a given negative delta H produces a smaller hopeful S surr. Therefore, exothermicity becomes much less of a determining factor for spontaneity together temperature increases.
The change in Gibbs cost-free energy for a process is proportional come the negative of Delta S universe. Due to the fact that delta S world is a criterion because that spontaneity, Delta G is also a criterion because that spontaneity (although opposite in sign)
Predict the spontaneity of a reaction (and the temperature dependency of the spontaneity) because that each possible mix of indicators for delta H and delta S (for the system)...-H negative, S positive
H negative, S positive: If a reaction is exothermic, H0. The change is cost-free energy will be negative at every temperatures and also the reaction will because of this be spontaneous at all temperatures.
H positive, S negative: If a reaction is endothermic, H>0, and also the readjust in entropy for the reaction is negative, S
H negative, S negative
H negative, S negative: If a reaction is exothermic, H
H positive, S positive.
H positive, S positive: If a reaction is endothermic (H>0), and the readjust in entropy for the reaction is positive, (S>0), the change in free energy will likewise depend ~ above temperature. The reaction will be non voluntarily at low temperature, however spontaneous at high temperature.
The third law of thermodynamics states that the entropy the a crystal at absolute 0 (0K) is zero. For enthalpy, we characterized a typical state therefore we could define a "zero" for scale. This is not important for entropy due to the fact that there is an absolute zero.
Gases have a much better standard entropy because they have more energetically identical ways to arrange their components, which results in greater power dispersal in ~ 25C.
The larger the molar mass, the better the entropy at 25C. Because that a given state that matter, entropy generally increases with enhancing molecular complexity.
How can you calculate the conventional entropy adjust for a reaction native the tables of typical entropy?
To calculate delta S reaction, subtract the standard entropies that the reaction multiplied by your stoichiometric coefficients, native the typical entropy of the product multiplied by their stoichiometric coefficient, or Delta S reaction=sum(ns products)-sum(ns reactants), whereby np represents the stoichiometric coefficients of the products, and nr represents the stoichiometric coefficient the the reactants, and S^o to represent the conventional entropy. Store in mind once using this equation that, uneven enthalpies of formation, which space equal to zero for facets in their conventional states, typical entropies are constantly nonzero in ~ 25C.
What space three various methods to calculate delta G because that a reaction? Which an approach would you usage to calculate G for a reaction at a temperature other than 25.
Three methods to calculation Grxn:-Use tabulated values of typical enthalpies to calculation delta Hrxn. And also use tabulated worths to calculation Srxn. Then usage values that Hrxn and also Srxn in the equation Grxn= Hrxn-Tsrxn-Use tabulated worths of the standard totally free energies of development to calculate Grxn utilizing an equation similar to that supplied for standard enthalpy the a reaction. Grxn=sum(ngproducts)-sum(ngreactants)-use a reaction pathway or stepwise reaction to amount the alters in cost-free energy because that each the the procedures in a manner comparable to that supplied in thing 6 for enthalpy that stepwise reactions. The an approach to calculate the free energy that a reaction at a temperature various other than 25 degrees is the first method. The second method is just applicable to 25C. The third technique is just applicable at the temperature of the separation, personal, instance reactions, normally 25C.
The change in cost-free energy of a chemistry reaction represents the maximum quantity of power available, or free, to do work-related (if delta Grxn is negative)
The standard free energy change (Gxn^o) uses only to standard conditions. Because that a gas, standard conditions are those in i beg your pardon the pure gas is current at a partial press of 1atm. For nonstandard conditions, we should calculate delta Grnx, not delta G^0rxn. To predict spontaneity.
Why go water spilled on the floor evaporate even though delta g^0 because that the evaporation process is optimistic at room temperature.

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Even though Delta G^0vap is optimistic at room temperature, fluid water is in equilibrium with water vapor in ~ a push of 0.0313atm. The vapor pressure of water is simply not as high as 1atm, the standard problem of a gas. This method that some water will evaporate.


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