|Introduction to scientific ProgrammingComputational trouble Solving Using:Maple and CMathematica and also CAuthor:Joseph L. ZacharyOnline Resources:Maple/C VersionMathematica/C Version|
Operator Precedence WorksheetClick listed below to download a Maple V worksheet. You can look at theappended non-interactive HTML variation of the worksheet to learn whatthe worksheet covers.Maple V relax 4 versionMaple V relax 3 versionThis woksheet is designed come accompany chapter 3 ofIntroduction to scientific Programming: Computational ProblemSolving using Maple and also C by Joseph L. Zachary. In it, we will certainly useMaple to check out the ide of operator precedence. (AW, jan 97)Multiplication/Division vs. Addition/SubtractionExamine the Maple expression below. Shot to predict what that is valuewill be before you asking Maple to advice it. There seem to it is in twopossibilities. If the enhancement is performed first, the an outcome will be4/2, which is 2. If the department is performed an initial the result willbe 5/2. Which is it? try it out and see.> 1+3/2;The 2nd possibility to be correct: the department was carry out first. We say that division takes precedence over addition.Now consider this expression. What space two reasonable possiblevalues? Which do you think Maple will find?> 2-3*4;Here, the multiplication was performed before the subtraction. (Hadthe subtraction been performed first, the price would have actually been -4.) us say that multiplication takes precedence end addition.Now try the adhering to experiments:In the first expression above, change the + operator with a -operator and reevaluate. I m sorry operator bring away precedence, subtractionor division?In the second expression above, change the - operator with a +operator and reevaluate. Which operator takes precedence, addition ormultiplication?Your experiments must reveal that in Maple (as in many otherprogramming languages) multiplication and department take precedenceover addition and subtraction. Us say the multiplication anddivision are at a greater level that precedence 보다 are enhancement andsubtraction.Multiplication vs. Division and enhancement vs. SubtractionWhat happens once an expression involves much more than operator in ~ thesame level of precedence? (For example, more than one multiplicationand department or much more than one enhancement and subtraction.)What would certainly be two possible values because that this expression?> 2/3*4;The department was performed first (to attain 2/3), and also the result wasthen multiply by 4 (to achieve 8/3). Had actually the multiplication beenperformed prior to the division, the an outcome would have been 1/6.This go not median that multiplication take away precedence end division, however. In the absence of parentheses, multiplication and divisionare performed left come right. We say the multiplication and also divisionare left associative.Try come predict the result of every of the following calculationsbefore you shot it. If her prediction transforms out to be incorrect, besure to figure out whereby the flaw in your thinking occurred.> 2*3/4;> 2/3/4;> 4/3*2/5;> 6*3/4*5;Addition and subtraction are also left associative. In the lack ofparentheses, addition and multiplication is performed from left toright. In reasonable arithmetic (at least in the lack of overlow)this does no make any kind of difference, however in floating-point arithmetic itcan end up being important.The complying with two expressions space mathematically identical; theydiffer only in the truth that your last two terms have actually beeninterchanged. Evaluate them.> 1 - 1 + 1e-12;> 1 + 1e-12 - 1;The answers room not the same! Why?In the first expression, the subtraction is performed first and theresult is zero. Once zero is included to the number 1e-12, we finish upwith the result 1e-12.In the second expression, the enhancement is carry out first. With onlyten digits of mantissa, however, the number 1e-12 is the shed in theroundoff and also the an outcome is 1. The subtraction hence yields a an outcome ofzero. (This example shows the floating-point arithmetic require notsatisfy the associative rule.)ExponentiationWhat about the precedence that the indices operator? view if youcan number out the rule by evaluating the following expressions:> 4*3^2;> 1+3^2;> 5/2^3;> 3/10^3*7;Notice that in every of this examples, the indexes wasperformed first. This is without doubt the method that it works: exponentiationhas higher precedence than multiplication and division, i beg your pardon in turnhave higher precedence than addition and multiplication.Now try this expression.> 2^3^4;The indices operator is non-associative. If you wish to domore than one indexes in one expression, you need to useparentheses come tell Maple whether you want> (2^3)^4;or> 2^(3^4);ParenthesesSpeaking that parentheses, you deserve to override Maple"s precedence rules byusing parentheses to team expressions in the order the you wishMaple to advice them. Here are some instances where us useparentheses to pressure a different evaluation order than Maple wouldotherwise use.> 2*(3+4);> 2^(3*4);> 2/(3/3);If girlfriend have any kind of doubt, usage parentheses to do usre Maple executesyour expression in the stimulate in which friend intend.SummaryThere are 5 arithmetic operators: ^, *, /, +, and also -.Exponentiation (^) is in ~ the highest level of precedence,multiplication (*) and department (/) space at a lower level ofprecedence, and addition (+) and subtraction (-) space at an even lowerlevel of precedence.In the absence of parentheses, operators at a greater level ofprecedence are performed prior to operators at a reduced level ofprecedence.In the lack of parentheses, multiplication and department areperformed from left to right, together are enhancement and subtraction.Parentheses have the right to be provided to explicitly manage the order of evaluationof an expression.Exercises1. Evaluate the adhering to expression.> 2 - 2^3*2;Add one collection of bracket so the the expression evalutes to -12. Now relocate your clip so that the expression evaluates to -62. Relocate your bracket one critical time to make the expression evaluate to0.2. Advice the adhering to expression.> 2/3*4^2;Add two sets that parentheses the leave the worth of the expressionunchanged.
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(Your parentheses might enclose neither the entireexpression no one a solitary number.3. Repeat exercise 2 for this expression.> 1+2/3*4+5;