Study session 8  Barrier Contraceptive Methods


Barrier contraceptive techniques are another form of contraceptive method used for preventing pregnancy and particular sexually transmitted infections. Various male and female obstacle methods the contraception have remained in use for centuries, and also they are one of the oldest methods in use. They space designed to protect against the passage of sperm right into the uterus during the sex-related act. The success that such techniques depends top top the high quality of the barriers, and the an inspiration and willingness of the couple to usage the method. The male condom is the only male obstacle known, when a variety of different female obstacles exist, such together the diaphragm, female condom and cervical cap, every one of which are widely available. Spermicides are often used in associate with barrier methods. They space chemical obstacles which can likewise be supplied on your own.

You are watching: Which of the following statements about barrier methods of contraception is false?

In this research session, you will certainly learn around the various obstacle methods, their types and device of actions, their performance of use, and the advantages and flaw of each.

Learning Outcomes for study Session 8

When you have actually studied this session, you have to be may be to:

8.1 Define and use correctly all of the vital words printed in bold. (SAQs 8.1 and also 8.6)

8.2 define the species of obstacle contraceptives. (SAQs 8.2 and 8.6)

8.3 describe the mechanism of action, use, effectiveness, benefits and disadvantages of the masculine condom. (SAQs 8.2, 8.3, 8.4 and 8.6)

8.4 define the use, benefits and flaw of the female condom. (SAQs 8.5 and also 8.6)

8.5 discuss the use, benefits and flaw of making use of diaphragms. (SAQ 8.6)

8.6 define the system of action, effectiveness and advantages of spermicides. (SAQ 8.6)

8.1  Types of barriers

Barrier contraceptives are broadly classified right into two main types: mechanically barriers and also chemical barriers.

8.1.1  Mechanical barriers

Mechanical barriers are devices that provide a physical obstacle between the sperm and the egg. Examples of mechanical barriers include the masculine condom, female condom, diaphragm, cervical cap, and sponge. The condom is the just contraceptive technique that helps avoid sexuallytransfer infections (STIs).

8.1.2  Chemical barriers

Chemical barriers or spermicides space sperm-killing substances, easily accessible as foams, creams, gels, films or suppositories, i beg your pardon are frequently used in female contraception in conjunction with mechanical barriers and also other devices. Spermicides space usually accessible without a prescription or medical examination.

8.2  The masculine condom

The masculine condom is just one of the most widely used obstacle methods in the world. In Ethiopia, it has perhaps to be the just barrier an approach ever known and used. Thus, in this research session, an ext emphasis will be offered to the male condom 보다 to any type of other barrier an approach and you will learn around it in detail.


8.2.1  Mechanism the action

A masculine condom is a covering made to fit over a man’s erect penis. The can additionally be referred to as a rubber, sheath or skin, and is recognized by many different brand names. It works by offering a barrier between partners throughout sexual intercourse, so that bodily fluids, such as semen and blood, space not shared. Together a result, pregnancy and also reproductive street infections (RTIs), including human being immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), have the right to be prevented. Most prophylactics are made of thin latex rubber. Some prophylactics are coated v a dry lubricant or with spermicide. Various sizes, shapes, colours and also textures space common.

8.2.2  Effectiveness

Condoms can be really effective in staying clear of pregnancy when supplied consistently and also correctly. The pregnancy price for couples who use condoms every time they have actually intercourse is approximated to it is in 3% per an initial year of use.

Condoms also assist prevent sexuallytransfer illness (STDs or STIs). During sexual intercourse, condoms can prevent the sex-related transmission of many diseases, consisting of gonorrhoea, syphilis, chlamydia, HIV/AIDS and also trichomoniasis (refer to your Communicable diseases Module).

8.2.3  How to usage a male condom

In this section, you will certainly learn exactly how a male condom is used. Table 8.1 shows you the basic steps. You deserve to learn how to demonstrate it making use of wooden models or toys. You must practise the on your own, or aided by her mentor, so the you can demonstrate it to any client in her community. Eventually, you will have to ask your client to show it earlier to check that the process has to be understood.

Table 8.1 Five straightforward steps once using a male condom. (Source: household Planning: A global Handbook because that Providers, WHO, 2007, p.203)
1 usage a brand-new condom because that each sex act. Check the condom package. Carry out not use the condom if it is torn or damaged. Stop using an expired condom. Carry out so only if a newer condom is no available. Tear and also the package carefully. Execute not usage fingernails, teeth, or anything the can damages the condom.

2 Before any type of physical contact, location the condom top top the guideline of the erect dick with the rolled next out.For the finest protection, placed the condom on before the dick makes any genital contact.

3 Unroll the condom all the method to the basic of the erect penis.The condom need to unroll easily. Forcing it on could reason it to break throughout use. If the condom does no unroll easily, it may be on backwards, it is in damaged, or be also old. Litter it away and also use a new condom. If the condom is top top backwards and another one is not available, turn it over and unroll it onto the penis.

4 instantly after ejaculation, hold the rim of the condom in place and also withdraw the penis while it is quiet erect.Withdraw the penis. On slide the condom off, staying clear of spilling semen. If having sex again, usage a brand-new condom.

5 Dispose of the provided condom safely.Wrap the condom in that packaging and also put the in the rubbish or latrine. Save it far from the with of children.
Condom failure

Condoms space used approximately the human being by unmarried and married couples. All users room not equally professional in taking care of condoms. Therefore, execute not assume that the client knows just how to effectively use a condom, nevertheless of past experience. Over there is constantly a possibility that male prophylactics could break or slip throughout sex. The most common reasons of condom failure are breakage and slipping. To protect against a condom native breaking due to dryness, the user needs to make certain there is enough lubrication from natural secretions, or usage a water-based lubricant. A water-based lubricant is a jelly-like lubricant do of water, e.g. KY jelly. Oil-based lubricants can reason condoms come break.

To store a condom indigenous slipping off, the user must be details that the in salt stays close to the base of the cock during intercourse. This is especially important at the finish of intercourse together the prick is withdrawn. See Box 8.1 for mistakes generally made by condom users, and also what necessary messages come tell her clients about handling condoms.

The five most usual mistakes are:

Not having a condom when needed. Beginning intercourse without a condom on the penis, climate interrupting intercourse to put on the condom (or deciding no to use the condom in ~ all).Tearing the condom through a fingernail.Not holding the pickled in salt of the condom as soon as withdrawing the prick from the vagina, leading to condom slippage and leakage.Forgetting to use the condom altogether.


Clients have to be informed that:

They should not usage two condoms at once. Placing 2 male condoms on a dick can advanced the opportunity of tearing. Used condoms should be thrown away after every sex act. Male condoms and also female condoms should not be used at the same time.The condom have to be used from ‘start come finish’ v every action of intercourse.

When offered consistently and also correctly through every act of sex-related intercourse, male condoms can protect against pregnancy and also STDs, consisting of HIV/ AIDS. They room safe, and also have no hormonal side-effects. They have the right to be quit at any time, and also fertility returns quickly after every use. They are an extremely easy come find and also use without seeing a healthcare provider first. Moreover, males of any type of age can use them, and also using a condom allows a guy to take obligation for avoiding pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections.

Disadvantages and also side-effects

Condoms do have actually some disadvantages. The usual ones are as follows:

Women have to rely on the man’s cooperation to defend themselves from pregnancy and also disease. Some people affix condoms with immoral sex, sex external marriage, or sex through prostitutes, and also do not desire to usage them. Some people are too embarrassed come buy, asking a companion to use, placed on, take off, or litter away condoms.Latex prophylactics may cause itching because that a couple of people who are allergic to latex and/or lubricants. Over there is a small possibility the a condom will slip off throughout sex. Condoms can weaken and also may break throughout use if stored for too long or in too lot heat, sunlight or humidity, or if provided with oil-based lubricants, such as vaseline or edible oils.

8.3  The mrs condom

8.3.1  Mechanism the action

A female condom is a thin, loose-fitting and flexible plastic pipe worn inside the vagina. It has inner and outer ring (Figure 8.2). A soft ring in ~ the closed finish of the pipe covers the cervix during intercourse and also holds it within the vagina. An additional ring in ~ the finish of the pipe stays outside the vagina and also partly consist of the lip area. The mrs condom helps protect partners indigenous pregnancy and also STIs, consisting of HIV/AIDS. It is the only female-controlled machine offering this protection. Like the masculine condom, the female condom offers a obstacle between partners during sexual intercourse, to protect against the sharing of bodily fluids, prefer semen and also blood. This guarantee that pregnancy does no occur, and STIs space not sent .

Figure 8.2 mrs condom. (Source: family members Planning: A worldwide Handbook because that Providers, WHO, 2007, p.212)

Male and female prophylactics should no be provided at the exact same time, as the resulting friction may lead to slipping or tearing.

Female condoms can be put up to 8 hours prior to intercourse, and also are only reliable when placed prior come intercourse. At first, female condoms can be uncomfortable come use, but they come to be easier through practice. Keep in mind that a female condom and a male condom should not be offered at the exact same time, since this can cause friction the may bring about slipping or tearing that the condoms.

To insert the condom (Figure 8.3), the woman has to squeeze the ring in ~ the closed finish of the tube. She can use her various other hand to spread out the outer lips, and also insert the squeezed condom right into the vaginal canal. The inside ring need to be pushed simply past the pubic bone and over the cervix.

After insertion, she has to make sure the condom is no twisted. Around one customs of the finish will stay external the body. The external ring the the female condom requirements to be held in place throughout intercourse. ~ intercourse, she needs to squeeze and also twist the external ring to save all fluids, including sperm, inside the condom, and gently traction it out and also throw the away.

Figure 8.3 exactly how to insert a female condom. (Source: family members Planning: A worldwide Handbook for Providers, WHO, 2007, p.214)

Female and also male prophylactics have many advantages in common. However, the following benefits are details to female condoms:

Unlike the male condom, erection is not necessary to save the condom in place. Female condoms do not minimize a masculine partner’s stimulation. Female prophylactics can be offered by civilization who are well-known to be sensitive to latex because, while most male condoms are do of latex, female prophylactics are make of plastic, i m sorry rarely reasons an allergic reaction.

These are the most typical disadvantages that the mrs condom:

Female prophylactics make a remarkable sound during sexual intercourse. The is sometimes difficult to insert or use, and some women deserve to have difficulty on the an initial attempt at self-insertion. It deserve to break or leak. The is much much more expensive 보다 a male condom.

8.4  The diaphragm

8.4.1  Mechanism the use

Although this barrier technique is not common in Ethiopia, the is helpful for you come learn around some that the basics of the diaphragm. The diaphragm is a tiny dome-shaped latex cup with a versatile ring the fits over the cervix. The cup acts together a physics barrier versus the entry of sperm into the uterus. A diaphragm is commonly used in addition to spermicide.

8.4.2  Effectiveness

The diaphragm has a reasonably high fail rate, around 16% over the first year the use. However, it is considered a good choice by women whose health or lifestyle prevents them indigenous using more effective hormonal contraceptives.

8.4.3  How to insert a diaphragm

During the installation process, a fitting ring is placed into the vagina. The biggest ring that fits comfortable is generally the dimension chosen. Diaphragms can be inserted up to two hours prior to sex, due to the fact that spermicide is only reliable for two hours. If the woman inserts her diaphragm much more than 2 hours before intercourse, she will have to insert more spermicide right into her vagina later on (see box 8.2 for guidelines). As a general rule, diaphragms must be replaced every one to 2 years.

Before or after every use, the mrs should host the diaphragm approximately the light, or fill it with water, to check for holes, tears or leaks.A little amount that spermicide (about one tablespoon) is usually placed inside the cup, and also some is smeared about the lip that the cup.The an equipment is then folded in fifty percent and inserted into the vagina by hand, or with the help of a plastic inserter.The diaphragm should fit end the cervix, blocking entry to the uterus.If much more than six hours pass prior to repeat intercourse occurs, the diaphragm have the right to be left in place, and also extra spermicide inserted into the vagina using an applicator.The diaphragm have to remain in the vagina for 6 to eight hours after the last act that intercourse, and also can safely stay there approximately 24 hours after insertion.The diaphragm have to be washed v soap and warm water after every use, and also then dried and also stored in its original container, which should be retained in a cool dry place.

The diaphragm can be brought in a purse, deserve to be put up to two hours before intercourse begins, and also usually can not be feel by one of two people partner. It also does no interfere with a woman’s hormones.

Disadvantages and complications

Common complications as soon as using a diaphragm are that some ladies dislike having to insert the maker every time they have actually intercourse, or have actually trouble mastering the insertion and also removal process. The diaphragm can additionally be dislodged throughout sex and the failure rate is high, about 16%. Additionally, the diaphragm does not protect versus STIs. Constant urinary street infections and also vaginal infections deserve to be a problem for part women when using a diaphragm.

8.5  Spermicides

8.5.1  Mechanism of use

Spermicides are sperm-killing chemicals placed deep right into the vagina, close to the cervix, prior to sex. Castle are obtainable in foaming tablets, melt or foaming suppositories, melting film, jelly and also cream. Jellies, creams and also foam indigenous cans have the right to be offered on your own, with a diaphragm, or v condoms. Films, suppositories, foaming tablets or foaming suppositories can be supplied on their very own or v condoms.

8.5.2  Effectiveness that spermicides

They work-related by leading to the membrane that the sperm cells to break, killing them or slowing your movement. This keeps the sperm from meeting the egg.

Spermicides are one of the least reliable family to plan methods, with a 29% opportunity of pregnancy, and as with other methods performance depends on the user. Danger of pregnancy is greatest when spermicides space not provided with every act of sex. In general, spermicides might be one appropriate an option for females who require back-up protection versus pregnancy (for instance, if they forget to take their birth manage pills). Spermicides need to not be supplied alone as the primary technique of birth control.

8.5.3  Advantages and disadvantages the spermicides

Spermicides room safe to use. They room a female-controlled technique that practically every woman have the right to use there is no the need to consult a medical care provider first. They can increase quality lubrication, so that vaginal dryness and also friction will certainly be minimised. They room much much easier to use through a little practice and can be stopped at any time. They have no hormonal side effects. Unfortunately they are among the least reliable methods on their own.

Summary of research Session 8

In examine Session 8, you have learned that:

Barrier contraceptives are generally classified right into two types: mechanically barriers and chemical barriers. Mechanical obstacles are devices that provide a physical obstacle between the sperm and also the egg when chemical barriers are known as sperm-killing substances or spermicides.The masculine condom is the main barrier method for men. That is a sheath that fits end the penis. It functions by producing a obstacle between partners so that bodily fluids, such as semen and blood, are not shared.Condoms have the right to be an extremely effective in preventing pregnancy and also STDs when used consistently and correctly.The most vital message come tell your client is the the condom have to be provided from ‘start to finish’ with every act of intercourse to effectively prevent pregnancy and also STIs.One of the benefits of male prophylactics is that men of any type of age deserve to use them, and using condoms enables a guy to take duty for preventing pregnancy and also diseases.The disadvantage of utilizing male condoms is that a man’s collaboration is needed for a woman to safeguard herself native pregnancy.A woman condom provides a barrier between partners to stop sharing bodily fluids choose semen and also blood. This ensures the STIs space not pass on, and also that pregnant does no occur. It is also the just female-controlled machine offering this protection.The woman condom is beneficial because, unequal the masculine condom, erection is not crucial to keep the condom in place.The diaphragm is a tiny dome-shaped latex cup v a flexible ring that fits over the cervix. The cup acts together a physical barrier versus the entrance of sperm into the uterus. A diaphragm is usually used together with a spermicide.Spermicides are sperm-killing substances which job-related by leading to the membrane of sperm cell to break, death them or slowing their movement. This keeps the sperm from conference an egg.

Self-Assessment concerns (SAQs) for examine Session 8

Now the you have completed this research session, you can assess just how well girlfriend have achieved its discovering Outcomes by answering these questions. Create your answer in your examine Diary and also discuss them v your guardian at the next Study support Meeting. Friend can inspect your answers through the note on the Self-Assessment concerns at the finish of this Module.

What is the significant difference in between mechanical barriers and chemical barriers? In what scenarios is each most effective?


The major difference in between mechanical barriers and also chemical obstacles is the mechanical barriers are devices that administer a physical barrier between the sperm and the egg, when chemical obstacles act as sperm-killing substances. Barrier methods can be more effective when used together with other contraceptive methods, together as dental contraceptives. Spermicides can additionally be used together with other mechanically barriers.

You have currently learnt that condoms have a number of advantages. Discuss the unique benefit that they have actually over various other contraceptive methods.


The unique advantage of condoms is the they deserve to be supplied for birth control and at the exact same time stop STIs, consisting of HIV/AIDS.

Counselling on the usage of contraceptives is one of the solutions that you have to provide. Throughout counselling, a client asks whether a masculine condom can be used an ext than once. She likewise asks if it can be supplied with the female condom, and if using 2 male condoms (one of top of the other) gives much better protection. What are the crucial messages you must pass on?


The an essential messages to pass on as soon as counselling client who desire to usage male condoms are:

Used condoms should be thrown away after every sex act. Male and also female prophylactics should no be used at the very same time. Placing two male condoms on a dick increases the opportunity of tearing.

The most typical reason for a masculine condom breaking is absence of sufficient lubrication from organic secretions, which outcomes in raised friction. Raised friction in turn reasons breakage. To get rid of this, users space advised to usage a water-based lubricant, such as KY jelly.

Sometimes, utilizing a mrs condom is much more advantageous because that the woman than relying top top a male partner to undertake a condom. Why? offer your reasons.


Using a female condom is much more advantageous for the woman than relying ~ above a male partner since it is the just female-controlled maker offering protection against pregnancy, STIs and also HIV/AIDS.

Which the the following statements is false? In each instance explain why the is incorrect.

A using male and also female condoms at the exact same time gives more protection against pregnancy and STIs.

B put on two condoms at a time can’t prevent breakage.

C In stimulate to avoid dryness and friction throughout sexual intercourse, you need to put on edible oil and vaseline.

D The diaphragm is just one of the least effective birth manage methods. Besides, it can not protect versus STIs.

E Spermicides can be supplied alone as a major protection against pregnancy.

F The instrument of activity of both male and also female prophylactics are the same, in that both administer a physical barrier between partner so that body fluids, such together semen and blood, room not shared.

G males should wait for the prick to become erect before they deserve to safely wear a condom. This is not essential for women, however.


A is false because wearing both male and female condoms at the very same time can increase the likelihood the breakage, as a result of enhanced friction.

B is true. Attract two prophylactics at a time cannot avoid breakage.

C is false due to the fact that to avoid dryness during sexual intercourse, you should not usage edible oil or Vaseline, yet rather only water-based lubricants, such as KY jelly.

D is true. The diaphragm is one of the least effective birth manage methods.

E is false since spermicides deserve to only be really reliable when offered with various other contraceptive methods, together as oral contraceptives, condoms and diaphragms.

F is true. Both male and female prophylactics act as physical obstacles so semen and blood room not shared.

G is true. Males should wait for the dick to come to be erect before wearing a condom.

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