This tutorial explains the simple functions, operations, and characteristics the a computer. Discover the four major functions of a computer system through diagrams and examples.

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Taking data and instructions native a user, handling the data as per instructions, and also displaying or save the processed data, are the four major functions of a computer. These attributes are likewise known as the intake function, process function, calculation function, and also storage function, respectively.

The adhering to diagram shows an example of this functions.


To administer these functions, a computer uses its materials or devices. Usually, contents of a computer are draft to do only among these four functions. But, some committed components or devices are draft to carry out two, three or all 4 functions. For example, a tough disk can perform 3 functions: entry (when files are read), warehouse (when documents are saved), and also output (when documents are written).

Components or devices of a computer, based on the duty in which they room used, deserve to be classified right into four significant types: the entry devices, calculation devices, storage devices, and processing devices. Because that example, if a component processes the given instructions, the component is well-known as the handling device. Or if a machine displays the processed data, the device is recognized as the output device.

Input function and devices

A computer is a data handling machine. It does nothing till a user (or a script or a program) provides the data that needs to it is in processed and the instructions that tell it how to process the data.

Any standard machine or component the a user uses to instruct a computer is well-known as the traditional input device. In various other words, a computer system uses its standard input devices or contents to gain instructions native a user.

The most usual input gadgets are the keyboard and also mouse. Practically all modern-day computers have actually these devices. Other common input tools are scanners, microphones, USB drives, and webcams.

Input data and also instruction can additionally be generated from a non-standard input device such as the tough disk and CD/DVD. For example, a batch file in the windows system might instruct the CPU to execute a regimen or a script at a specific time.

Installation disks are another great example that non-standard intake devices. Usually, they contain a manuscript or an executable routine that instantly starts the installation procedure as soon as the disk is read.

Process function and devices

Once the data and also instructions are got by the input function, the computer starts the processing function. In this function, a computer processes the got data according to the instructions.

To process the entry data follow to the instructions, the computer uses the CPU. A CPU is the key processing ingredient of a computer. It processes user instructions, executes scripts and programs, and also runs regulates of the OS that provide a platform because that installing and using applications software.

Other necessary processing contents are auxiliary processors. Assistant processors are likewise known as onboard processors. Auxiliary processors are provided in gadgets to enhance their functionalities. You have the right to think the an auxiliary processor together the personal CPU that a device.

Only contents or gadgets that administer the complicated functionality such as Graphics cards, I/O devices, and network interface cards usage auxiliary processors. Because that example, if a user paint, etc an image, the assistant processor on the graphics card performs every calculations that require in illustration the photo on the display device.

The complying with image mirrors a sample the both a CPU and an auxiliary processor.


The adhering to table perform the key differences in between a CPU and an assistant processor.

CPUAuxiliary processor
A CPU is a compulsory component. Without it, a computer does not work.An assistant processor is an optional component.
A CPU is an individual component. That is installed individually in the system.An auxiliary processor is an integrated part of a device. It can not be mounted separately.
A CPU is design to carry out all types of tasks.An assistant processor is designed to perform just a specific type of task.

Output function and devices

After handling the input data, the CPU, auxiliary processor, or the process function sends out the processed data come the output function or come the default or configured calculation device. Through default, computer systems use monitors as the default output device.

Aside from monitor, a variety of output gadgets are likewise available. Every output an equipment presents the processed data in a different form, because that example, a monitor, a printer, and a speak displays, prints, and plays the processed data, respectively.

A user, based on his requirement, can connect and also use two, 3 or more output gadgets to the computer. For example, after viewing the processed data, a user have the right to send it come the press for printing.

Storage role and devices

Storing data and also information is the fourth major function of a computer. This function allows united state to save the processed data for later use. To store data and also information, a computer uses two varieties of warehouse components: temporary and permanent.

Temporary storage contents are supplied to save data temporarily. Data save on computer in a short-term storage component is erased as soon as the system is shutdown. Ram is a compulsory short-lived storage component. A computer system uses the lamb to keep the to run applications and their data.

Permanent storage materials are offered to save data permanently. Data save on computer in a long-term storage component is no erased once the system is shutdown. The difficult disk is the most usual permanent storage component. Usually, all computers have at the very least one tough disk to store data. Other usual permanent storage contents or devices are outside drives, USB drives, and CD/DVD.

The adhering to image shows an instance of both types of storage components.


Storage devices are likewise used in the input and also output functions, enabling data come be conserved (output function) and then accessed again later on (input function).


The complying with table perform a few sample actions in addition to the surname of devices and functions the are offered when they room performed.

A user running a text-editor program varieties the letter Z top top the keyboard. The keyboard sends a password representing the letter Z come the CPU. KeyboardInput
The CPU procedures the code and determines what letter was typed. Climate the CPU sends instructions come the monitor to display the letter Z.CPUProcess
The monitor screens the letter Z.MonitorOutput
The user clicks the Save button. The computer mouse sends a password representing the click.MouseInput
The CPU procedures the code and determines what action was clicked. CPUProcess
The CPU saves the document on the disk.

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Hard diskStorage

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