Small Intestine

The small intestine exoften tends from the pyloric sphincter to the ileocecal valve, wright here it empties right into the big intestine. The tiny intestine finishes the procedure of digestion, absorbs the nutrients, and also passes the residue on to the big intestine. The liver, gallbladder, and pancreas are accessory organs of the digestive mechanism that are very closely associated through the tiny intestine.

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The small intestine is divided right into the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum. The small intestine complies with the general structure of the digestive tract in that the wall has a mucosa with basic columnar epithelium, submucosa, smooth muscle via inner circular and also outer longitudinal layers, and also serosa. The absorptive surchallenge location of the little intestine is enhanced by plicae circulares, villi, and microvilli.

Exocrine cells in the mucosa of the little intestine secrete mucus, peptidase, sucrase, maltase, lactase, lipase, and enterokinase. Endocrine cells secrete cholecystokinin and also secretin.

The many important aspect for regulating secretions in the small intestine is the visibility of chyme. This is largely a local reflex action in response to chemical and mechanical irritation from the chyme and also in response to distention of the intestinal wall. This is a straight reflex action, therefore the better the amount of chyme, the better the secretion.


Large Intestine

The big intestine is larger in diameter than the little intestine. It starts at the ileocecal junction, wbelow the ileum enters the huge intestine, and ends at the anus. The big intestine consists of the colon, rectum, and anal canal.

The wall of the big intestine has the very same types of tworry that are found in various other parts of the digestive tract yet there are some separating features. The mucosa has a large variety of goblet cells but does not have actually any type of villi. The longitudinal muscle layer, although present, is incomplete. The longitudinal muscle is restricted to 3 distinctive bands, dubbed teniae coli, that run the entire length of the colon. Contractivity of the teniae coli exerts pressure on the wall and also creates a series of pouches, called haustra, alengthy the colon. Epiploic appendperiods, pieces of fat-filled connective tissue, are attached to the outer surconfront of the colon.

Unchoose the tiny intestine, the big intestine produces no digestive enzymes. Chemical digestion is completed in the small intestine before the chyme reaches the big intestine. Functions of the big intestine incorporate the absorption of water and electrolytes and also the elimination of feces.

Rectum and Anus

The rectum continues from the sigmoid colon to the anal canal and has a thick muscular layer. It adheres to the curvature of the sacrum and also is firmly attached to it by connective tconcern. The rectum ends about 5 cm below the pointer of the coccyx, at the beginning of the anal canal.

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The last 2 to 3 cm of the digestive tract is the anal canal, which continues from the rectum and also opens to the outside at the anus. The mucosa of the rectum is folded to create longitudinal anal columns. The smooth muscle layer is thick and forms the interior anal sphincter at the premium end of the anal canal. This sphincter is under involuntary control. There is an outside anal sphincter at the inferior finish of the anal canal. This sphincter is composed of skeletal muscle and is under voluntary control.