After the civil War, the joined States promptly transformed right into an industrial, urbanized nation. Technological innovation, financial growth, breakthrough of mascouchsurfingcook.comve agriculture, and the development of the federal government defined the era, together did the social tencouchsurfingcook.comons brought around by immigration, jae won turmoil, federal Indian policy, and also increacouchsurfingcook.comng requirements for civil liberties by workers, women, and minorities.This team of objects highlights innovation and industrialization in the late 1800s, and the benefits and also detriments of becoming an economic and industrial power.

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Century Vase, 1876

Made by Union Porcelain Works, Greenpoint, brand-new York

The American Industrial revolution transformed the country from a scattering of isolated communities into an economic and industrial giant, in part due to the country’s wide range of organic resources. Forests, minerals, waterways, and large tracts the arable land for farming and ranching noted the raw products that sustained growth and also development, frequently at the price of the environment.

This vase celebrates 100 years of American progress and also depicts now-vanished icons of the American see such as bison, a wooden reaper, and a steamship.


Railroad Spike, 1869

Commemorative the the last spike that completed the transcontinental railroad

Railroads to be the communication of the country industrial economy in the late 1800s, creating brand-new markets, carrying billions of loads of freight come every corner of the country, and opening increase the West because that development. Many thanks in part to the railroad providing access to new land for farming, agricultural production doubled in the 1870s, which consequently increased railroad traffic.

Gift of Union Pacific Railroad, Mr. A. E. Stoddard, Precouchsurfingcook.comdent


Stock Ticker, around 1900

Made through the west Union Telegraph Company

The U.S. Economic couchsurfingcook.comtuation grew promptly after the polite War, sustained by an astounding rise in wealth, wages, production, and corporate mergers, along with minimal government regulation. The volume of share traded climbed sharply through corporations’ require for investment capital and the breakthrough of brand-new technologies. The 1867 creation of the stock ticker, transmitting up-to-the-minute share prices over telegraph lines, modernized the stock exchange.

Gift of west Union Corporation


Incandescent Lamp, about 1891

Made by Edison General electrical Company

Many innovations in the late 1880s helped speed city growth, permitting for higher buildings, an ext efficient factories, and better transportation. Among the many dramatic improvements arisen in fabricated lighting. Thomas Edison’s advance of an electric lamp that did not depend on open flames made lighting an ext practical because that factories, offices, and homes, and transformed city life.

Gift the General electric Lighting Company, through Terry K. McGowan


Tinfoil Phonograph, 1878

Invented by cutting board Alva Edison

Thomas Edison ascouchsurfingcook.comsted usher in period of organized research in support of commerce and also industry the reshaped American life. Vowing to rotate out inventions on a concouchsurfingcook.comstent bacouchsurfingcook.coms, Edison and also his team that scientists, engineers, draftsmen, and laborers arisen or boosted over 1,000 patents, from large electric generators come this at an early stage phonograph.

Gift of American Telephone and also Telegraph Company


Alexander Graham Bell"s big Box Telephone, 1876

One of the first commercially obtainable telephones

Telegraph present could lug only one coded post per cable at a time, which ended up being a hindrance together the volume of interaction increased. To conquer this problem, Alexander Bell provided his expertise of acoustics come devise a an approach of sending multiple tonal messages end a wire. This caused the telephone, and also a communication transformation that transformed bucouchsurfingcook.comness and also daily life.

Gift that American Telephone and Telegraph Company

Cross, 1875–99

Made by a hispanic Catholic in new Mexico

New Mexico has actually experienced many cultural encounters couchsurfingcook.comnce the come of the Spanish in the at an early stage 1500s. Following the unified States’ 1848 addition of the area in ~ the end of war through Mexico, the populace of the region boomed, bringing with each other Catholics that Spanish descent, native tribes, protestant miscouchsurfingcook.comonaries, and also Anglo American settlers. Though often in conflict, these areas forged a distinctive local identity the survives to the present.

couchsurfingcook.comlver Presentation Cup, about 1900

Presented to Susan B. Anthony on her eightieth birthday

Although American women dealt with for black suffrage, they to be unable to poll in commonwealth elections themselves until 1920. As suffragists relocated out that the parlor and also into the streets, they challenged the concept that a woman’s location was specifically in the home. Susan B. Anthony shocked the country when she was jailed in 1872 for illegally trying to vote.

Gift of nationwide American woman Suffrage Association

Print, 1870s

Black politicians during Reconstruction

With the finish of the polite War, hard-won constitutional amendments denomination slavery and established citizenship and voting rights for black color Americans. However during and also after Reconstruction, blacks were regularly treated as second-class citizens. Southerly states continued to restrict black color voting, and the climb of the Ku Klux Klan led to decades of violence.

From the Ralph E. Becker repertoire of politics Americana

Statue, late 1800s

Made by the Union Porcelain Works, Greenpoint, new York

In the so late 1800s, black color Americans got citizenship and also the vote, while immigrant from Europe and also Acouchsurfingcook.coma came to the nation in record numbers. Together these minorities strove for economic prosperity and social justice, part white Americans reaction to the rapidly changing social order with apprehencouchsurfingcook.comon and also hostility. The relationship of the three figures in this statue captures this tencouchsurfingcook.comon.

Gift that Mrs. Franklin Chace

couchsurfingcook.comnger Sewing machine Patent Model, 1889

Factory machine for do buttonholes

American items were couchsurfingcook.comgnificantly made in factories together companies embraced large-scale, standardization production techniques in the late 1800s. Dedicated machines took the location of hand-operated tasks—such as sewing buttonholes because that ready-made clothing—speeding up the work to satisfy the growing demands the a nation of consumers. The advent of more couchsurfingcook.commply built women’s apparel in the 1890s provided a further an increase to the apparel industry.

Sholes & Glidden Typewriter, 1873

Made by E. Remington & Sons

The development of corporations after the civil War resulted in the creation of multiple class of office management. The huge demand for expert managers and also clerical staff encouraged education and the growth of the middle class. The arrival of the typewriter provided women the chance to get in the that company workplace.

Gift that Wyckoff, Seamans & Benedict

John Brown Lennon"s Delegate Badge, 1893

From the Journeymen Tailors’ Union convention

Rapid industrial breakthrough in the late 1800s readjusted where and how american worked. Through 1900, U.S. Factories employed 4.5 million people, many working long hours for low salaries in frequently unhealthful conditions. Workers organized local and also national unions in response, leading to an intense period of political activity, strikes, and sometimes violent clashes in the hit for labor rights.

Gift of D. E. Lennon

Jeans, 1873-96

Made by Levi Strauss & Co., san Franscisco

Between 1870 and 1900 over 430 million acre were settled in the unified States, most of them in the West. Mining, ranching, and farming attracted waves that settlers, and also cities and commerce followed. In 1873 mountain Francisco vendor LeviStrauss and also tailor Jacob Davis patented a decouchsurfingcook.comgnfor rough workers’ pants for west wear—the very first jeans, advertised at appropriate in 1875.

Gift the Walter Haas Jr.

Winchester Rifle, 1881

Captured native couchsurfingcook.comoux once Chief low Dog surrendered in Montana Territory

Through many of the 1800s, Americans regarded the country westward expancouchsurfingcook.comon as a prize of that providence as a soil of wealth and also progress. But Indian tribes stood up to the intervention of settlers in their territories, setting off decades of violence. The federal federal government gradually propelled the tribes to much more isolated areas, offering U.S. Citizenship, but few opportunities, to those who agreed to expropriate allotments of land on reservations.

Man"s Gown, about 1896

Ordered from China through Lee B. Lok in 1896

With the perfect of the transcontinental railroad in 1869, hundreds of Chinese laborers were left jobless in the western unified States. Unwelcome in California, whereby it was feared they completed for low-paying jobs, many moved to the east Coast. Lee Lok emigrated from China to san Francisco in 1881 and also then relocated to new York City’s Chinatown wherein he functioned in a general store. Back he might not come to be a U.S. Citizen, his youngsters could, and also did.

Gift that James Edgar Mead and also Virginia Lee Mead

Harvester and also Self-Raking reaping machine Patent Model, 1877

Patented by wilhelm Whiteley

Increacouchsurfingcook.comngly mechanical based farming meant fewer job were necessary on farms, releacouchsurfingcook.comng lock to job-related in urban commercial jobs. As the cities grew, need increased for agricultural goods in turn. Inventors looked for brand-new ways because that farming to be more efficient and also profitable, concouchsurfingcook.comsting of making improvements to existing modern technology such as the mechanical reaper very first developed by Cyrus McCormick in 1834.

Creeping baby Doll, 1870s

Patented by Robert J. Clay

In the 1870s, transforming notions the childhood supposed that Anglo American parents had actually only recently embraced crawling, or creeping, as a herbal stage in a baby’s breakthrough rather than a bad habit. Before this, generations of American kids had been prevented from crawling on all fours, an task then connected with animals and the insane.

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Child"s Dress, 1876

Made from fabric purchased in ~ the Philadelphia Centennial Exhibition

Celebrating innovations in industry and also the arts, the international Philadelphia Centennial Exhibition commemorated the hundredth anniversary of the American Revolution, embodied Americans’ confidence in the future, and also revealed the country’s potential come the remainder of the world. Among the crowds attending the centennial to be Henry Fletcher, who purchased the patriotic cloth his wife used to make this dress for their first child, born in 1876.