Toby Teorey, ... H.V. Jagadish, in Database Modeling and also Design (Fifth Edition), 2011

Multivalued Attributes

A multivalued attribute the an entity is one attribute that have the right to have much more than one value associated with the vital of the entity. Because that example, a large company could have numerous divisions, some of them possibly in different cities. In this case, department or division-name would be classified together a multivalued attribute the the firm entity (and its key, company-name). The headquarters-address attribute of the company, ~ above the various other hand, would normally be a single-valued attribute.

You are watching: What occurs when two entities can be related to each other in many instances?

Classify multivalued characteristics as entities. In this example, the multivalued attribute division-name need to be reclassified together an entity division with division-name together its i would (key) and division-address together a descriptor attribute. If attributes are minimal to be solitary valued only, the later on design and also implementation decisions will be simplified.


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Data Modeling in UML


Terry Halpin, Tony Morgan, in details Modeling and Relational Databases (Second Edition), 2008

9.3 Attributes


Like other ER notations, UML enables relationships to it is in modeled as attributes. For instance, in number 9.6(a) the Employee class has eight attributes. The corresponding ORM diagram is presented in figure 9.6(b).



Figure 9.6. UML qualities (a) shown as ORM relationship species (b).


In UML, attributes are mandatory and single valued through default. therefore the employee number, name, title, gender, and smoking status characteristics are all mandatory. In the ORM model, the unary predicate “smokes” is optional (not everybody has to smoke). UML does not support unary relationships, so the models this instead as the Boolean attribute “isSmoker”, with possible values True or False. In UML the domain (i.e., type) of any attribute might optionally be displayed after it (preceded by a colon). In this example, the domain is displayed only for the isSmoker attribute. Through default, ORM devices usually take a closeup of the door world method to unaries, i m sorry agrees with the isSmoker attribute gift mandatory.

The ORM model also indicates that Gender and also Country are determined by codes (rather 보다 names, say). We can convey some of this information in the UML diagram by additionally domain names. Because that example, “Gendercode” and “Countrycode” might be appended come “gender: “ and “birthcountry: “ to administer syntactic domains.


In the ORM version it is optional whether we record birth country, social security number, or passport number. This is recorded in UML by additional <0..1> come the attribute surname (each employee has 0 or 1 birth country, and also 0 or 1 social protection number). This is an instance of one attribute multiplicity constraint. The key multiplicity cases are presented in Table 9.2. If the multiplicity is not claimed explicitly, the is suspect to it is in 1 (exactly one). If desired, we may suggest the default multiplicity explicitly by appending<1..1> or <1> come the attribute.


Table 9.2. Multiplicities.


MultiplicityAbbreviationMeaningNote
0.. 10 or 1 (at most one)
0..**0 to countless (zero or more)
1exactly 1Assumed through default
1..*1 or more (at the very least 1)
n..*n or much more (at least n)n ≥ 0
n..mat the very least n and at many mm > n ≥ 0

In the ORM model, the uniqueness constraints on the right-hand roles (including the Employee Nr referral scheme displayed explicitly earlier) indicate that every employee number, social defense number, and also passport number refer to at most one employee. As stated earlier, UML has no standard graphic notation because that such “attribute uniqueness constraints”, for this reason we've included our own P and also Un notations for desired identifiers and uniqueness. UML 2 included the option of clues unique or nonunique as component of a multiplicity declaration, yet this is just to explain whether instances the collections for multivalued attributes or multivalued association functions may incorporate duplicates, so that can't be provided to specify the instances of single valued features or combinations of such attributes are distinct for the class.

UML has actually no graphic notation because that an inclusive-or constraint, for this reason the ORM constraint that each employee has a social protection number or passport number demands to be expressed textually in an fastened note, as in number 9.6(a). Such textual constraints may be to express informally, or in part formal language interpretable through a tool. In the last case, the constraint is inserted in braces.

In our example, we've favored to code the inclusive-or constraint in SQL syntax. Although UML provides OCL because that this purpose, the does not mandate that use, allowing users to pick their own language (even programming code). This of course weakens the portability of the model. Moreover, the readability that the constraint is typically poor compared v the ORM verbalization.

The ORM fact form Employee was born in country is modeled together a birthcountry attribute in the UML course diagram of figure 9.6(a). If we later decide to document the population of a country, climate we must introduce nation as a class, and to clarify the connection in between birthcountry and also Country us would most likely reformulate the birthcountry attribute together an association between Employee and also Country. This is a significant change come our model. Moreover, any type of object-based queries or code that referenced the birthcountry attribute would also need to it is in reformulated. ORM prevents such semantic instability by always using relationships rather of attributes.

Another reason for presenting a Country course is to allow a listing of countries to be stored, identified by their nation codes, there is no requiring every one of these nations to get involved in a fact. To execute this in ORM, we simply declare the Country kind to be independent. The object form Country may be lived in by a referral table that contains those country codes of interest (e.g., ‘AU’ denotes Australia).

A common argument in support of qualities runs choose this: “Good UML modelers would declare nation as a course in the first place, anticipating the need to later record something about it, or to preserve a referral list; ~ above the other hand, features such together the title and also gender the a person clearly are points that will certainly never have actually other properties, and hence are best modeled as attributes”. This debate is flawed. In general, girlfriend can't be sure about what kinds of info you can want to document later, or about how necessary some model feature will become.

Even in the title and also gender case, a finish model should incorporate a relationship kind to indicate which titles are restricted to which sex (e.g., “Mrs”, “Miss”, “Ms”, and also “Lady” apply only come the woman sex). In ORM this sort of constraint have the right to be captured graphically as a join-subset constraint or textually together a constraint in a officially ORM language (e.g., If Person1 has actually a location that is restricted to Gender1 then Person1 is of Gender1). In contrast, attribute intake hinders expression of the relevant restriction combination (try expressing and also populating this ascendancy in UML).

ORM has algorithms because that dynamically generating ER and UML diagrams together attribute views. These algorithms assign different levels of prestige to object types depending ~ above their present roles and also constraints, redisplaying minor fact types as qualities of the significant object types. Modeling and maintenance room iterative processes. The importance of a attribute can adjust with time as we discover an ext of the global model, and also the domain gift modeled itself changes.

To promote semantic stability, ORM renders no commitment to relative prestige in its base models, instead supporting this dynamically v views. Primary school facts are the fundamental units the information, space uniformly stood for as relationships, and also how they are grouped into structures is no a theoretical issue. You have the right to have your cake and eat it too by utilizing ORM because that analysis, and if you desire to work with UML class diagrams, you can use your ORM models to have them.


One method of modeling this in UML is displayed in number 9.7(a). Right here the information about who dram what sport is modeled together the multivalued attribute “sports”. The “<0..*>” multiplicity constraint top top this attribute suggests how numerous sports might be gotten in here for each employee. The “0” suggests that it is possible that no sports can be gotten in for part employee. UML offers a null value for this case, just like the relational model. The visibility of nulls exposes customers to implementation quite than theoretical issues and adds complexity to the semantics of queries. The “*” in “<0..*>” suggests there is no top bound ~ above the number of sports of a single employee. In various other words, an employee may play many sports, and also we don't treatment how many. If “*” is supplied without a lower bound, this is taken as an abbreviation because that “0..*”.




For basic cases prefer this, thing diagrams room useful. However, lock rapidly become unwieldy if we wish to display screen multiple instances because that more facility cases. In contrast, truth tables scale quickly to handle large and facility cases.

ORM border are conveniently clarified using sample populations. For example, in number 9.8(b) the lack of employee 101 in the Plays truth table clearly shows that playing sports is optional, and also the uniqueness constraints note out which pillar or column-combination worths can take place on at most one row. In the EmployeeName truth table, the an initial column values space unique, but the 2nd column has duplicates. In the dram table, every column includes duplicates: just the entirety rows space unique. Such populaces are really useful for checking constraints through the subject matter experts. This validation-via-example attribute of ORM holds for every its constraints, not simply mandatory roles and uniqueness, since all that constraints room role-based or type-based, and also each duty corresponds to a reality table column.

As a final example of multivalued attributes, mean that we wish to record the nicknames and colors of nation flags. Let us agree to document at most two nicknames for any given flag and that nicknames apply to just one flag. Because that example, “Old Glory” and perhaps “The Star-spangled Banner” might be used as nicknames for the United says flag. Flags have at the very least one color.


Figure 9.9(a) reflects one method to version this in UML. The “<0..2>” suggests that every flag has at most 2 (from zero to two) nicknames. The <”1..*> declares that a flag has one or much more colors. An additional constraint is needed to ensure the each nickname refers to at most one flag. A basic attribute uniqueness constraint (e.g., U1) is not enough, due to the fact that the nicknames attribute is set valued. No only should each nicknames collection be distinct for each flag, but each facet in each set must be distinct (the second condition indicates the former). This more complex constraint is specified informally in an attached note.



Here the attribute domains are hidden. Nickname facets would commonly have a data type domain (e.g., String). If us don't store other information around countries or colors, us might pick String as the domain for country and also color as well (although this is subconceptual, due to the fact that real countries and also colors are not character strings). However, since we can want to add information around these later, it's far better to usage classes because that their domain names (e.g., Country and also Color). If we do this, we require to specify the classes together well.

Figure 9.9 (b) shows one method to version this in ORM. For verbalization we determine each flag by its country. Because country is an entity type, the reference scheme is displayed explicitly (reference modes may abbreviate recommendation schemes only when the referencing kind is a worth type). The “≤ 2” frequency constraint shows that every flag has at most 2 nicknames, and also the uniqueness constraint ~ above the function of NickName indicates that every nickname describes at many one flag.

UML offers us the an option of modeling a feature as an attribute or an association. For conceptual analysis and also querying, clearly associations usually have many benefits over attributes, particularly multivalued attributes. This selection helps united state verbalize, visualize, and also populate the associations. It also allows us to express assorted constraints including the “role play by the attribute” in conventional notation, quite than resorting to some nonstandard extension. This applies not just to straightforward uniqueness border (as disputed earlier) but additionally to other kinds of constraints (frequency, subset, exclusion, etc.) end one or much more roles that encompass the function played by the attribute's domain (in the implicit association matching to the attribute).

For example, if the combination Flag is of nation is portrayed explicitly in UML, the constraint that each nation has at most one flag deserve to be captured by including a multiplicity constraint the “0..1” ~ above the left function of this association. Back country and color are normally conceived together classes, nickname would typically be construed as a data kind (e.g., a subtype that String). Return associations in UML may encompass data types (not simply classes), this is rather awkward; therefore in UML, nicknames might finest be left together a multivalued attribute. Of course, we can model that cleanly in ORM first.

Another reason for favoring associations over qualities is stability. If we ever want to talk around a relationship, that is feasible in both ORM and also UML to make things out that it and also simply attach the new details to it. If rather we modeled the function as one attribute, we would need to an initial replace the attribute by an association. Because that example, consider the combination Employee plays sports in number 9.8(b). If we must record a skill level because that this play, we can simply objectify this association together Play, and also attach the fact type: Play has SkillLevel. A comparable move deserve to be do in UML if the play feature has to be modeled together an association. In figure 9.8(a) however, this attribute is modeled together the sporting activities attribute, which demands to be changed by the equivalent association before we can add the brand-new details about skill level. The concept of objectified relationship species or association classes is covered in a later on section.


Another trouble with multivalued qualities is the queries top top them need some way to extract the components, and also hence complicated the query procedure for users. As a trivial example, compare queries Q1, Q2 expressed in dominate (an ORM questions language) with their counterparts in OQL (the thing Query language proposed by the ODMG). Although this instance is trivial, the use of multivalued qualities in more complex structures deserve to make that harder for individuals to express their requirements.

(Q1)

List each color that is that Flag ‘USA’.

(Q2)

List each Flag that has shade ‘red’.

(Q1a)

select x.colors from x in Flag where x.country = “USA”

(Q2a)

select x.country from x in Flag where “red” in x.colors


For together reasons, multivalued attributes should usually be avoided in analysis models, particularly if the attributes are based on classes quite than data types. If we stop multivalued attributes in our conceptual model, we have the right to still use them in the really implementation. Some UML and ORM tools permit schemas to be annotated through instructions come override the default plot of whatever mapper is offered to transform the schema to an implementation. Because that example, the ORM schema in number 9.9 might be all set for mapping through annotating the roles played through NickName and also Color to map as sets within the mapped Flag structure. Such annotations are not a theoretical issue, and also can be postponed till mapping.


Ming Wang, Russell K. Chan, in Encyclopedia of details Systems, 2003

I.C.1.d. Dominion for every Multivalued Attribute in a Relation

Create a new relation and use the very same name together the multivalued attribute. The primary an essential in the new relation is the mix of the multivalued attribute and the primary vital in the parent entity type. Because that example, department ar is a multivalued attribute linked with the room entity form since one room has more than one location. Because multivalued attributes are not enabled in a relation, we have to separation the department place into another table. The primary crucial is the combination of deptCode and also deptLocation. The new relation dept-Location is


*

Only one value at the intersection that a column and also row: A relationship does not allow multivalued attributes.

Uniqueness: There space no duplicate rows in a relation.

A main key: A primary key is a shaft or combination of columns through a value that uniquely identifies each row. As lengthy as girlfriend have unique primary keys, you additionally have distinctive rows. We will look at the worry of what renders a an excellent primary crucial in good depth in the next significant section that this chapter.

There room no positional concepts: The rows have the right to be regarded in any order without affecting the meaning of the data.


Note: for the most part, DBMSs execute not enforce the distinct row constraint automatically. However, together you will watch in the next bullet, over there is another way to acquire the exact same effect.

A main key: A primary key is a obelisk or combination of columns v a worth that unique identifies every row. As lengthy as you have unique primary keys, you will ensure that you additionally have unique rows. We will look at the worry of what renders a great primary key in an excellent depth in the next major section the this chapter.

There room no positional concepts. The rows have the right to be regarded in any type of order without affecting the definition of the data.


Note: You can not necessarily relocate both columns and also rows around at the very same time and also maintain the verity of a relation. When you readjust the stimulate of the columns, the rows should remain in the very same order; once you readjust the order of the rows, girlfriend must move each whole row as a unit.


5.11 Reintroducing public Folder Affinity

With Exchange 5.5, there was no together lowest-cost transitive routing mechanism to identify where a customer should be directed for particular Public Folder content. Instead, girlfriend explicitly identified a server for a certain Public Folder come which referrals would be directed. This windy Folder affinity capability was not present in Exchange 2000 yet was re-introduced through Exchange 2003 to provide administrators an ext flexibility for managing Public Folder referrals quite than relying top top routing costs.


You can set Public Folder affinity prices on a server-by-server basis. Because that example, i think that i host certain Public Folder contents on server OSBEX02 however not top top my house mailbox server of OSBEX01. Ns can collection the publicly Folder Referrals property of the OSBEX01 server so the all publicly Folder referrals space directed to OSBEX02. This is presented in Figure 5-6.


Little granularity have the right to be imposed using this affinity mechanism. Because that instance, you cannot select certain affinity servers for particular Public Folders. Nor deserve to you implement a fallback to making use of Public Folder referrals based on routing costs: the a one or the various other approach. However, friend can define multiple affinity servers and also associate a price with each one, so the the lowest-cost affinity server is used for customer referrals if the is available. If a details affinity server is no reachable, then the next highest-cost one is selected.


Entering server info into the general public Folder Referrals home tab outcomes in the msExchFolderAffinityCustom attribute being collection to 1, and also the values you go into for the affinity servers are held in the msExchFolderAffinityList multivalued attribute. You can review these settings using ADSI edit or LDP; both space to be found as nature of the adhering to object in the AD:

CN = Configuration Container/CN = Services/CN = Microsoft Exchange

/CN = /CN = Administrative Groups

/CN = /CN = Servers/CN 


Where

 is the name of your Exchange Organization,

 is the surname of your Exchange Site, and

 is the surname of your Exchange server.

From a deployment perspective, the obviously a little next action to use some basic programming come populate these values programmatically using a an approach such as CDOEXM.


Mikhail Gilula, in Structured find for large Data, 2016

7.3 aboriginal KeySQL Systems

In this section, we take into consideration some native KeySQL applications. The perform is by no means comprehensive but is to plan to highlight the typical benefits that deserve to be lugged by the usage of structured search an innovation in the type of native key-object data stores.

7.3.1 medical care Information Systems

We consider the healthcare applications not just because they are positioned to benefit from the use of the structured search technology and KeySQL, but also as a representative that a class of together applications, i beg your pardon have common issues through respect to your relational database implementations.

As a background, permit us point out that after much more than 45 years from the beginning of the relational era, there room still prerelational medical systems in use. This illustrates not just the conservative nature that the healthcare subject area, but likewise the probable truth that the conversion of those systems to the relational platform did not look overwhelmingly advantageous.


For the benefits of brevity, let us suggest to just two principal characteristics of the health care information systems as follows:

1.

The healthcare data objects have tendency to be relatively facility and variable in your structure and also contain multiple groups of multivalued attributes. Because that example, a patient can have multiple diagnoses, every of which can require lot of medications, etc.

2.

There is one underlying architecture requirement of supporting the electronic exchange of the wellness records between the various systems.


Both support the idea that the key-object data model and KeySQL have the right to be an ext appropriate than the relational model and SQL for use in the healthcare applications.

Particularly, the key-object model drastically reduces the number of related data records required for representing a clinical instance compared to the relational model. This simplifies and speeds up the ad hoc querying that the associated data and also combining it into the considerable information objects, specifically for the data exchange purposes. The reverse process of inserting the info from the incoming digital exchange messages into the receiving systems likewise becomes more straightforward and also quick.

The natural compatibility the the key-object instance syntax v the JSON based data transport styles can bring extr advantages.

Data warehousing of medical care information and subsequent analysis processing and reporting can likewise benefit from the usage of the key-object data model and KeySQL. The supporting debates are in line with those gift in Section 7.3.2, devoted to data warehousing.

7.3.2 large Data Warehousing

Data warehousing is a field of database applications that got its acknowledgment and large acceptance some 20 years after ~ the relational databases to be invented. Due to the fact that that time, the data warehouses became vital and valuable part of virtually any that organization.

Unlike the to work systems, which typically use a relatively small set of predefined data accessibility paths, the data warehousing applications call for the full-scale use of structured questions languages, an especially SQL, which right now has tiny competition in this area.

The intrinsic part of the data warehousing an innovation are the processes collectively known as extract, transform, and also load (ETL), i m sorry are provided to extract data indigenous the work systems and load it right into the data warehouses for succeeding analytical processing.

The ETL procedures typically involve moving around large amounts that data, and also are performance-hungry. This is especially true when the big Data have to be analyzed as fast as feasible in order to extract information an essential for tactical and strategic business insights.

NoSQL systems space successfully competing with SQL databases because that their usage in to work systems. However, the data warehousing still remains mainly the SQL domain due to the fact that the usage of SQL and specifically the use of ad hoc queries, is so far basically irreplaceable for the service users.

That is why in ~ least component of the data developed by the NoSQL systems is at some point loaded right into the SQL data warehouses for analytical processing. In ~ the very same time, the is already clear that the power of ETL procedures and also SQL databases become an ext and an ext inadequate for digesting the huge Data.


The an important path of the big Data warehousing is figured out by the adhering to main issues.

1.

The data native the NoSQL operational systems need far-reaching transformations in order to be loaded right into multiple relational tables. This renders it complicated to to the right the ETL processes right into the batch windows, and also leads come the rule inability that loading all data that might be potentially useful for obtaining the organization intelligence. In reality, the percent of big Data that deserve to be timely and reliably loaded into the SQL data warehouses is diminishing through time as the huge Data grows follow me the size of the three V’s.

2.

The performance of also pretty huge and high-quality SQL databases puts boundaries on the capacity to process the ever-growing data volumes. The most problematic part of this handling is joining large tables. In Chapter 6, we have already mentioned that the joins space generally difficult to parallelize. Yet the relational technology heavily depends on the joins since of its i can not qualify to handle multiple data values and also data normalization, which in turn is caused by the should avoid the upgrade anomalies and the extreme storage volumes.


The structured search technology based on the key-object data model and also implemented in the aboriginal KeySQL data shop is on the one hand compatible with the affluent data objects the the NoSQL operational systems, and also on the other hand provides functional identical of the SQL querying capabilities. This provides it a much better choice because that the big Data warehousing than the relational database technology.

The use of KeySQL stores would allow accelerating the ETL processes because the lossless data changes from the NoSQL models right into the key-object model are generally much much more straightforward. In ~ the exact same time, the ad hoc querying capabilities of the KeySQL are equivalent with those that the SQL, together basically whole SQL functionality have the right to have that is analogs in the KeySQL. Performance-wise, KeySQL has an advantage of reduce the relative share that joins that hamper the in its entirety performance the the SQL data warehousing solutions.

7.3.3 KeySQL on MapReduce Clusters

The key-object data design is much more capacious and general 보다 the relational one. And it is also an ext scalable. As pointed out in Chapter 6, though KeySQL supports the analogs that the relational join operations, the eliminates the intrinsic need of joins caused by the level table structure and the require for dealing with multiple values via joins. Together a result, the re-superstructure of join operations in the KeySQL query handling is reduced relatively to the relational model. At the very same time, the re-publishing of restriction to work is increased. This is because, uneven the relational model, complex data objects with multiple values are indigenous to KeySQL, therefore the restriction predicates space evaluated directly on the base key-object instances instead of first collecting their parts from many tables via joins. Minimizing the share of joins and also maximizing the re-superstructure of restrictions allow KeySQL solution to take much better advantage that the MPP shared-nothing architectures since the restrictions always scale linearly, while the joins normally do not.

Unlike the relational restriction, the key-object analog is a full operation. Its definition allows any key-object instance based on a given magazine as the argument, when the relational border is bound by the table schema. This facilitates associative access to key-object data and also promotes scalability.


A basic property the the key-object data version that renders it inherently more scalable than the relational one is dubbed “additivity” and relates to the function of data accumulation. Expect something is called “data.” Then, there should be an procedure of adding or combining the data. The question is what is the result of adding data come data. The intuition says that the result must it is in data as well. In other words, if A is data, and also B is data, then A + B (and B + A) need to be data, whereby the plus authorize “+” denotes the procedure of data accumulation. Let us call the data design additive if the “+” operation has the following properties:

1.

Idempotence: A + A = A

2.

Associativity: A + (B + C) = (A + B) + C

3.

Commutativity: A + B = B + A


Note that the mentioned properties need to be valid for any “data.” So, the “+” procedure is complete with respect to every little thing we call data.

The data build-up operation of the key-object model is the union procedure on the data stores. Namely, the union of any kind of two data shop (based on the very same catalog) is a data store. The course every other set operations top top the data shop are full as well, and generally every operations ~ above the data stores us have thought about are total.

This is not the situation for the relational model, whereby the union of 2 relations, and also all collection operations ~ above the relations, is partial. They are only defined for the union-compatible relations, which space the relations having equal variety of attributes of compatible types. So, the relational design is just partially additive.

The nature of the key-object data model enable highly scalable implementations the the indigenous KeySQL databases using predominantly or exclusively associative accessibility to data. Those implementations deserve to use computer system clusters having, by order of magnitude, much more nodes than any modern-day SQL MPP systems.


Particularly, the MapReduce framework over the distributed file systems provides a natural structure for the swarm KeySQL implementations. Figure 7.1 illustrates the design of such “stackable” structured search clusters integrated by the common namespaces the key-object catalogs, whereby each node have the right to be a cluster of its own, receiving the queries and also returning the responses.


Jiawei Han, ... Jian Pei, in Data Mining (Third Edition), 2012

Other Attribute an option Measures

This section on attribute selection measures was not intended to be exhaustive. We have presented three steps that are frequently used for structure decision trees. These measures are no without their biases. Information gain, together we saw, is biased toward multivalued attributes. Return the acquire ratio adjusts because that this bias, it tends to prefer unbalanced splits in which one partition is lot smaller than the others. The Gini index is biased toward multivalued attributes and also has an obstacle when the variety of classes is large. It likewise tends to donate tests that an outcome in equal-size partitions and purity in both partitions. Although biased, these measures give reasonably an excellent results in practice.

Many various other attribute choice measures have actually been proposed. CHAID, a decision tree algorithm the is famous in marketing, offers an attribute selection measure the is based upon the statistical χ2 test for independence. Various other measures incorporate C-SEP (which performs much better than information gain and also the Gini table of contents in details cases) and also G-statistic (an details theoretic measure that is a nearby approximation come χ2 distribution).

Attribute an option measures based on the Minimum description Length (MDL) principle have actually the least prejudice toward multivalued attributes. MDL-based actions use encoding techniques to define the “best” decision tree as the one that requires the fewest variety of bits come both (1) encode the tree and (2) encode the exception to the tree (i.e., cases that room not effectively classified by the tree). Its key idea is that the simplest of remedies is preferred.

Other attribute an option measures consider multivariate splits (i.e., whereby the partitioning the tuples is based on a combination of attributes, rather than top top a single attribute). The dare system, for example, can discover multivariate splits based on a linear mix of attributes. Multivariate splits room a type of attribute (or feature) construction, where new attributes are created based on the currently ones. (Attribute building and construction was additionally discussed in chapter 3, as a form of data transformation.) these other steps mentioned here are past the limit of this book. Extr references are given in the bibliographic notes at the end of this thing (Section 8.9).

“Which attribute choice measure is the best?” every measures have some bias. It has actually been presented that the time complexity of decision tree induction usually increases tremendously with tree height. Hence, steps that have tendency to create shallower trees (e.g., through multiway fairly than binary splits, and that favor more balanced splits) might be preferred. However, some research studies have found that shallow trees tend to have a large number of leaves and greater error rates. Despite several to compare studies, nobody attribute an option measure has been discovered to be considerably superior come others. Many measures give quite good results.


Jan L. Harrington, in Relational Database Design and also Implementation (Fourth Edition), 2016

Single-Valued matches Multivalued Attributes

Because us are eventually going to produce a relational database, the qualities in ours data model must it is in single-valued. This way that for a offered instance of one entity, every attribute have the right to have only one value. Because that example, the client entity presented in Figure 4.1 allows only one phone call number for each customer. If a client has more than one phone call number, and wants them all consisted of in the database, then the customer reality cannot take care of them.

Note: While it is true the the theoretical data version of a database is independent of the formal data version used come express the framework of the data come a DBMS, we frequently make decisions on just how to version the data based on the requirements of the officially data version we will certainly be using. Removed multivalued qualities is one such case. Girlfriend will also see an example of this as soon as we attend to many-to-many relationships between entities, later in this chapter.

The visibility of much more than one phone number turns the phone call number attribute right into a multivalued attribute. Due to the fact that an entity in a relational database cannot have multivalued attributes, girlfriend must take care of those characteristics by developing an entity to host them.

In the case of the multiple phone numbers, we could create a phone number entity. Each circumstances of the entity would incorporate the customer number of the human to whom the phone call number belonged, along with the call number. If a customer had three call numbers, then there would be three instances of the phone call number entity for the customer. The entity’s identifier would be the concatenation of the customer number and the phone call number.

Note: there is no means to protect against using the phone call number as component of the reality identifier in the call number entity. Together you will involved understand as you check out this book, in this specific case, over there is no damage in using it in this way.

Note: Some human being view a phone call number together made of three distinct pieces of data: one area code, an exchange, and also a unique number. However, in common use, we generally consider a call number to be a single value.

What is the problem with multivalued attributes? Multivalued features can cause problems with the meaning of data in the database, considerably slow under searching, and also place unnecessary limitations on the quantity of data that deserve to be stored.


Assume, for example, the you have an Employee entity, with characteristics for the name and also birthdates that dependents. Each attribute is allowed to store multiple values, together in Figure 4.2, where each gray blob to represent a single instance the the Employee entity. How will you combine the exactly birthdate with the surname of the dependent to which the applies? will it it is in by the position of a worth stored in the attribute (in various other words, the very first name is concerned the very first birthdate, and so on)? If so, just how will girlfriend ensure the there is a birthdate because that each name, and a surname for every birthdate? how will friend ensure the the order of the values is never blended up?


When looking a multivalued attribute, a DBMS have to search each value in the attribute, most most likely scanning the contents of the attribute sequentially. A sequential find is the slowest kind of search available.

In addition, how plenty of values need to a multivalued attribute be able to store? If friend specify a preferably number, what will happen when you need to store much more than the maximum variety of values? because that example, what if you allow room because that 10 dependents in the Employee entity just discussed, and also you conference an employee through 11 dependents? execute you create another instance of the Employee entity for that person? think about all the difficulties that act so would create, particularly in terms of the unnecessary replicated data.

Note: Although the is theoretically possible to write a DBMS that will store an unlimited variety of values in an attribute, the implementation would certainly be difficult, and searching lot slower 보다 if the maximum number of values were specified in the database design.


As a basic rule, if you run throughout a multivalued attribute, this is a major hint that you need one more entity. The only means to take care of multiple worths of the same attribute is to develop an reality of i m sorry you can store lot of instances, one because that each worth of the attribute (for example, Figure 4.3). In the case of the Employee entity, we would require a Dependent reality that might be pertained to the Employee entity. There would certainly be one circumstances of the dependence entity related to an instance of the Employee entity, for each of an employee’s dependents. In this way, over there is no border to the variety of an employee’s dependents. In addition, each circumstances of the dependence entity would contain the name and birthdate of only one dependent, eliminating any type of confusion about which surname was associated with i m sorry birthdate. Browsing would additionally be faster, due to the fact that the DBMS can use rapid searching methods on the individual Dependent entity instances, without resorting to the slow sequential search.


Salvatore T. March, in Encyclopedia of information Systems, 2003

II.C. Attribute

Attributes name and also specify the attributes or descriptors that entities and relationships that must be maintained within an details system. Each circumstances of an reality or relationship has actually a value for every attribute ascribed to that reality or relationship. Chen defined an attribute as a function the maps native tin reality or relationship instance into a collection of values. The implicit is the an attribute is solitary valued—each circumstances has precisely one value for each attribute. Some data modeling formalisms permit multivalued attributes, however, these room often an overwhelming to conceptualize and also implement. They will not be thought about in this article.

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Returning come the meaning of an entity, the “common set of qualities or descriptors” mutual by all instances of an entity is the mix of its attributes and relationships. For this reason an entity may be regarded as that collection of instances having actually the same set of attributes and participating in the same collection of relationships. The course, the context determines the set of attributes and relationships that space “of interest.” for example, within one paper definition a client entity might be identified as the collection of instances having actually the qualities customer number, name, street address, city, state, zip code, and credit map number, elevation of whether that circumstances is an individual person, a company, a neighborhood government, a commonwealth agency, a charity, or a country. In a different context, where the kind of company determines how the client is billed or even if it is legal to sell certain product to the instance, these very same instances may be organized into different entities and additional attributes might be identified for each.