For this evaluation we surveyed 3,030 UNITED STATE Hispanic adults in December 2019 as component of the 2019 National Survey of Latinos. We asked survey respondents about their awareness of the term Latinx and their views of the term. The sample includes 2,094 Hispanic adults that were members of Pew Research Center’s Amerideserve to Trends Panel (ATP), an online survey panel that is recruited through nationwide, random sampling of residential addresses. It additionally includes an oversample of 936 respondents sampled from Ipsos’ KnowledgePanel, an additional digital survey panel also recruited with national, random sampling of residential addresses. For the functions of this report, references to foreign-born Hispanics encompass those born in Puerto Rico. Individuals born in Puerto Rico are U.S. citizens by birth. The survey was conducted in both English and also Spanish.
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See the Methodology area of this report for even more details.
The terms Hispanic and also Latino are supplied interchangeably in this report.
Latinx is a term used to describe people that are of or relate to Latin Amerihave the right to origin or descent. It is a gender-neutral or nonbinary alternate to Latino or Latina.
U.S. born refers to persons born in the USA and also those born in various other countries to paleas at least among whom was a UNITED STATE citizen.
Fopower born describes persons born external of the United States to parental fees neither of whom was a UNITED STATE citizen. The terms foreign born and also immiprovide are offered interchangeably in this report. For the purposes of this report, foreign born likewise consists of those born in Puerto Rico. Although individuals born in Puerto Rico are UNITED STATE citizens by birth, they are consisted of among the international born for this report bereason they are born into a Spanish-leading culture and also because on many type of points their attitudes, views and ideas are a lot closer to Hispanics born awide than to Hispanics born in the 50 says or the District of Columbia, even those that identify themselves as being of Puerto Rihave the right to beginning.
2nd generation describes people born in the 50 says or the District of Columbia through at least one first-generation, or immigive, parent.
Third and also greater generation refers to civilization born in the 50 states or the District of Columbia through both parents born in the 50 says or the District of Columbia.
Language dominance is a compowebsite measure based on self-defined assessments of speaking and analysis abilities. Spanish-dominant civilization are more skilled in Spanish than in English (i.e., they stop and review Spanish “very well” or “pretty well” yet price their English-speaking and also reading ability lower). Bilingual describes people that are competent in both English and also Spanish. English-dominant civilization are more knowledgeable in English than in Spanish.
Pan-ethnic labels describing the U.S. populace of civilization tracing their roots to Latin America and Spain have been introduced over the years, rising and also falling in popularity. Today, the 2 dominant labels in use are Hispanic and Latino, via beginnings in the 1970s and also 1990s respectively.
However before, for the population it is supposed to define, only 23% of UNITED STATE adults who self-determine as Hispanic or Latino have actually heard of the term Latinx, and just 3% say they usage it to describe themselves, according to a nationally representative, bilingual survey of U.S. Hispanic adults conducted in December 2019 by Pew Research Center.
The emergence of Latinx synchronizes via a global movement to present gender-neutral nouns and also pronouns right into many langueras whose grammar has actually traditionally used male or female constructions. In the USA, the first provides of Latinx appeared even more than a decade earlier. It was included to a extensively used English dictionary in 2018, reflecting its higher use.
Yet the usage of Latinx is not prevalent practice, and also the term’s appearance has actually produced controversy about its appropriateness in a gendered language choose Spanish. Some movie critics allude to its beginnings among UNITED STATE English speakers, saying it ignores the Spanish language and also its gendered form.1 Still, there are examples of the term’s usage in Spanish in the U.S. and also awide.2 On the other hand, others check out Latinx as a gender- and also LGBTQ-inclusive term, reflecting a more comprehensive motion within the U.S. roughly sex identification.
In addition, the UNITED STATE born are even more likely than the foreign born to have heard the term (32% vs. 16%), and also Hispanics who are predominantly English speakers or bilingual are even more likely than those who mostly stop Spanish to say the same (29% for both vs. 7%).
Hispanics that determine via or lean towards the Democratic Party are even more likely to have actually heard of Latinx than those who recognize through or lean towards the Republideserve to Party (29% vs. 16%).
Awareness of the term Latinx does not necessarily interpret into usage. Across many type of demographic subgroups, the share of Hispanics that say they use Latinx to define their very own identity is significantly reduced than the share who say they have actually heard it. Use is one of the highest for Hispanic women ages 18 to 29 – 14% say they use it, a substantially better share than the 1% of Hispanic guys in the very same age team that say they usage it.
The development of Hispanic, Latino and also Latinx
Throughout the last half-century in the U.S., various pan-ethnic terms have actually occurred to explain Americans who map their roots to Latin America and Spain.
The term Hispanic was initially supplied by the U.S. federal government in the 1970s after Mexican Amerideserve to and also various other Hispanic establishments lobbied the federal federal government to collect information on the population. Subsequently, the U.S Congress passed Public Law 94-311 in 1976, mandating the collection of indevelopment about U.S. citizens of Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central Amerideserve to, South Amerideserve to and other Spanish-speaking country origins. The regulation referred to as for the U.S. Census Bureau to create a more comprehensive category that encompassed all people that determined having actually roots from these countries. The term Hispanic was initially offered in a full census in 1980.
The 1990s brought resistance to the term Hispanic, as it adopted a strong link via Spain, and an alternate term emerged: Latino. By 1997, the U.S. Office of Management and also Budget issued a directive including the term Latino to government publications. The 2 terms are offered interchangeably, with Latino initially appearing on the U.S. census in 2000, alongside Hispanic.
More recently, Latinx has arised as an alternative to Hispanic and Latino. Online searches for the term among the basic U.S. populace appeared online in the at an early stage 2000s. But the initially considerable rise in searcs (family member to all digital searches) appeared in June 2016 following a shooting at Pulse nightclub, an LGBTQ dance club in Orlando, Florida, that was hosting its Latin Night on the date of the assault. In subsequent years, the term’s use on social media by celebrities, political leaders and grassroots establishments has grown. In addition, some academic centers at community colleges, public colleges and Ivy League colleges are replacing Latino program names that were establiburned in previous decades with brand-new Latinx-concentrated names.
In even more than 15 years of polling by Pew Research Center, half of Americans that trace their roots to Spanish-speaking Latin America and also Spain have consistently shelp they have actually no choice for either Hispanic or Latino as a term to define the group. And as soon as one term is favored over another, the term Hispanic has actually been wanted to Latino. Importantly, the exact same surveys present, nation of beginning labels (such as Mexihave the right to or Cuban or Ecuadorian) are wanted to these pan-ethnic terms among the populace they are intended to describe.
Google searcs for Latinx increasing in U.S., but trail much behind Latina, Latino and Hispanic
The relative popularity of Latinx in virtual searches in the U.S. has actually enhanced given that 2016, according to a Pew Research Center evaluation of Google Trends information.3 While its earliest Google searches extend back to the beforehand 2000s, the greatest monthly family member number of searches for Latinx emerged in June 2020, surpassing a previous peak in October 2019.4
Should Latinx be adopted as a pan-ethnic term for UNITED STATE Hispanics?
While some Hispanics say Latinx must be offered as a pan-ethnic term, few say they prefer it over others. A majority (61%) say they favor Hispanic to explain the Hispanic or Latino population in the UNITED STATE, and 29% say they prefer Latino. On the other hand, simply 4% say they choose Latinx to define the Hispanic or Latino population.
Preferral for Latinx as a pan-ethnic term is greater among those that are mindful of it – 10% in this group say they like Latinx. Yet also among those conscious of Latinx, the terms Hispanic (50%) and Latino (31%) are wanted.
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In their own words: What does Latinx mean to Hispanics?
When asked in an open-finished question what Latinx means in their very own words, 42% of those that have heard the term describe it as a gender-neutral one. As one 21-year-old woman shelp, “Latinx is a much more inclusive term to use for those who execute not choose to identify with a details gender. The terms Latino and also Latina are incredibly limiting for specific human being.”
Other responses from the open-finished question offer other descriptions of Latinx and also reactions to it. For example, 12% of respondents that had actually heard of Latinx express disagreement or dischoose of the term. Some defined the term as an “anglicism” of the Spanish language, while others say the term is “not representative of the larger Latino neighborhood.”
Among other responses, 12% say Latinx is a term about being Hispanic or Latino, while 9% of those conscious of Latinx say it is an LGBTQ community inclusive term. And 6% of respondents that have heard of Latinx say it is a new, different or replacement term for Latino.