biological psychology
"a branch of psychology pertained to through the links in between biology and also actions."
neuron"a nerve cell; the fundamental structure block of the nervous device."
dendrite"the bushy, branching extensions of a neuron that recieve messperiods and also conduct impulses towards the cell body."
axon"the expansion of a neuron, finishing in branching terminal fibers, via which messages pass to various other or to muscles or glands."
myelin sheath"a layer of fatty tproblem segmentally encasing the fibers of many kind of neurons; enables vastly better transmission speed of neural impulses as the impulse hops from one node to the following."
action potential"a neural impulse; a brief electric charge that travels dowm an axon. It is produced by the movment of positively charged atoms in and also out of channels in the axon's membrane."
synapse"the junction between the axon tip of the sfinishing neuron and also the dendrite or cell body of the recieving neuron. The tiny gap at this junction is called the synaptic gap or cleft."
neurotransmitters"chemical messengers that traverse the synaptic gaps between neurons. When released by the sending neuron, neurotransmitters take a trip across the synapse and also bind to receptor sites on the recieving neuron, thereby affecting whether that neuron will certainly geneprice a neural impulse."
acetycholine (ACh)"a neurotransmitter that allows finding out and also memory and additionally triggers muscle contraction."
endorphins" 'morphine within' - natural, opiatelike neurotransmitters attached to pain control and also to pleacertain."
nervous system"the body's speedy, electrochemical interaction network, consisting of all the nerve cells of the peripherial and also central nervous devices."
main nervous mechanism (CNS)"the brain and spinal cord."
peripheral nervous mechanism (PNS)"the sensory and motor neurons that affix the central nervous system (CNS) to the remainder of the body."
nerves"neural 'cables' containing many type of axons. Tese bundled axons, which are component of the peripheral nervous device, attach the central nervous device with muscles, glands, and feeling organs."
sensory neurons"neurons that bring incoming information from the sense receptors to the central nervous device."
motor neurons"neurons that carry outgoing information from the central nervous system to the muscles and glands."
interneurons"main nervous mechanism neurons that internally connect and intervene between the sensory inputs and motor outputs."
somatic nervous system"the division of the peripheral nervous device that controls the body's skeletal muscles. Also referred to as the skeletal nervous mechanism."
autonomic nervous system"the part of the peripheral nervous system that controls the glands and also the muscles of the interior organs (such as the heart). Its sympathetic department arouses; its parasympathetic department calms."
sympathetic nervous system"the department of the autonomic nervous device that arooffers the body, mobilizing its energy in stressful cases."
parasympathetic nervous system"the division of the autonomic nervous system that calms the body, conserving its energy."
reflex"a straightforward, autonomic, inborn response to a sensory stimulus, such as the knee-jerk response."
neural networks"interassociated neural cells. With experience, networks deserve to learn, as feedearlier strengthens or inhibits relationships that develop particular outcomes. Computer simulations of neural networks show analogous learning."
endocine system"the body's 'slow' chemical interaction system; a set of glands that secrete hormones into the bloodstream."
hormones"chemical messengers, mainly those made by the endocine glands, that are developed in one tworry and influence one more."
adrenal glands"a pair of endocrine glands simply over the kidneys. The adrenals secrete the hormones epinephrine (adrenaline) and also nonrepinephrine (nonadrenaline), which helps to arousage the body in times of anxiety."
pituitary gland"the endocrine system's most influential gland also. Under the affect of the hypothalamus, the pituitary regulates expansion and controls various other endocrine glands."
lesion"tconcern damage. A brain lesion is a normally or eperimentally led to damage of brain tconcern."
electroencephalogram (EEG)"an amplified recording of the waves of electrical task that move across the brain's surchallenge. These waves are measured by electrodes inserted on the scalp."
PET (posistion emission tomography) scan"a visual display screen of brain task that detects where a radioenergetic develop of glucose goes while the brain performs a offered job."
MRI (magnetic resonance imaging)"a technique that supplies magnetic areas and also radio waves to develop computer-produced imperiods that differentiate amonf different forms of soft tissue; enables us to see structures within the brain."
fMRI (functional magnetic resonance imaging)"an approach for revealing blood circulation and, therefore, brain task by comparing successive MRI scans.

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MRI scans show brain anatomy; fMRI scans show brain attribute."
brainstem"the oldest part and main core of the brain, beginning wright here the spinal cord swells as it enters the skull; it is responsible for automatic survival features."
medulla"the base of the brainstem; controls heartbeat and breapoint."
reticular formation"a nerve network-related in the brainstem that plays an essential role in managing arousal."
thalamus"the brain's sensory switchboard, situated on height of the brainstem; it directs messages to the sensory recieving locations in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla."
cerebellum"the 'little brain' attached to the rear of the brainstem; its functios include handling sensory input and coordinating activity output and also balance."
limbic system"a doughnut-shaped sytem of neural structures at the border of the brainstem and also cerebral hemispheres; linked through the emotions such as fear and also aggression and drives such as those for food and also sex. Includes the hippocampus, amygdala, and also hypothalamus."
amygdala" 2 lima bean sized neural clusters that are components of the limbic system and are attached to eactivity."
hypothalamus"a neural framework lying listed below (hypo) the thalamus; it directs numerous maintenence tasks (eating, drinking, body temperature), helps govern the endocrine system via the pitutiary gland, and is attached to emovement."
cerebral cortex"the intricate towel of interconnected neural cells that covers the cerebral hemispheres; the body's ultimate regulate and also indevelopment handling center."
glial cells"cells in the nervous system that support , nourish and safeguard neurons."
frontal lobes"the percentage of the cerebral cortex lying just behind the forehead; associated in speaking and also muscle movements and in making plans and judgements."
parietal lobes"the percentage of the cerebral cortex lying at the peak of the head and toward the rear; recieves sensory input for touch and body posistion."
occipital lobes"the percent of the cerebral cortex lying at the earlier of the head; consists of the visual locations, which recieve visual indevelopment from the opposite visual area."
temporal lobes"the percentage of the cerebral cortex lying about above the ears; includes the auditory locations, each of which recieves auditory areas, each of which recieves auditory information mainly from the oppowebsite ear."
motor cortex"an area at the rear of the frontal lobes that controls voluntary activities."
aphasia"disability of language, generally brought about by left hemisphere damages either to Broca's location (impairing speaking) or to Wernicke's area (imparing understanding)."
Broca's area"controls language expression-a space of the frontal lobe, generally in the left hemisphere, that directs the muscle motions associated in speech."
Wornicke's area"controls language reception-a mind location involved in language comphrehension and expression; normally in the left tempdental lobe."
corpus callosum"the big band also of neural fibers connecting the two brain hemispright here and transferring messperiods in between them."
separation brain"a condition in which the two hemispheres of the brain are isolated by cutting the connecting fibers (mostly those of the corpus callosum) between them.)