1) You just received a freshwater aquarium together a gift and also decide come add an ext fish. As soon as you get to the pet store, you uncover that the many beautiful fish space saltwater animals, however you decide to buy them anyway. What will happen when you placed your high-quality saltwater fish in your freshwater aquarium?A)The fish will gain larger an ext quickly in the healthier problems of new water.B) Nothing: the fish will certainly live normally.C) The cells of the fish will take up too much water, and also the fish will certainly die.D) The fish will dehydrate and die.E) In the far better conditions of new water, the fish readjust and do far better than in salt water.

You are watching: The movement of substances from the blood into the proximal tubule is known as _____.


Terrestrial animals are _____.A) most likely to have actually the same difficulties with osmoregulation as perform freshwater fishB) osmoregulators that must attain water indigenous the environmentC) obligated to defend their egg from drying with water-resistant shellsD) normally nocturnalE) either arthropods or vertebrates


Birds, insects, and many reptiles excrete nitrogenous rubbish in the kind of uric acid, which _____.A) reduces power use contrasted to other nitrogenous wastes, however is very toxic to pets that develop itB) to reduce water loss contrasted to other nitrogenous wastes, but is extremely toxicC) reduce water loss compared to various other nitrogenous wastes, but requires an ext metabolic energy to produceD) is much more soluble in water than various other nitrogenous wastes, however is energetically costlier than various other nitrogenous wastes come synthesize


Urine created by a kidney collects in the _____ before being drained indigenous the kidney by the _____ and transported come the _____.A urethra ... Urinary bladder ... UreterB renal pelvis ... Medulla ... CortexC renal pelvis ... Ureter ...urinary bladderD renal pelvis ... Urethra ... Urinary bladderE ureter ... Renal pelvis ... Urinary bladder


The _____ are the significant blood vessels moving blood come the kidneysA pulmonary arteriesB glomerulusC renal arteriesD renal veinsE venae cavae


In which an ar of the nephron is a steep osmotic gradient created?A Loop that Henle.B Distal tubule.C Collecting duct.D Proximal tubule.


Which the the complying with statements best describes the actions of the hormone ADH ~ above the nephron?A ADH reasons the distal tubule to rise Na+ reabsorption as soon as Na+ level in the blood are low.B ADH reasons the proximal tubule to increase glucose reabsorption once the body"s energy needs are high.C ADH reasons the loop of Henle to rise urea reabsorption under problems of dehydration.D ADH causes the collecting duct to rise water reabsorption by the bordering tissue under problems of dehydration.


What is the driving pressure for the filtration the blood through the renal corpuscle?A The presence of microvilli.B higher pressure in glomerular capillaries than in the surrounding Bowman"s capsule.C The diffusion of small solutes such as urea under a concentration gradient.D The existence of big pores in the glomerular capillaries and filtration slits.


The motion of substances indigenous the blood right into the proximal tubule is recognized as _____. A filtrationB dialysis C secretionD reabsorptionE nobody of these


Which of this is reabsorbed native filtrateA salt chlorideB glucoseC waterD amino acids E all of these


As filtrate moves under the loop that Henle, the bordering interstitial liquid becomes _____ focused than the filtrate, for this reason _____ pipeline the filtrate. A More…urea B much less ... UreaC an ext ... WaterD less ... WaterE much less ... Water and urea


The most abundant solute in to pee is _____.A Glucose B waterc plasma proteinsd salt chloridee urea (and various other nitrogenous wastes)


Glucose is eliminated from filtrate by _____.A secretionB diffusionC dialysisD active transportE osmosis


The fluid with the highest osmolarity isA Distillesd water B estuarine water.C plasma in mammals.D plasma in birds.E seawater in a tidal pool.


Birds that live in maritime environments and thus lack accessibility to fresh drinking waterA attain water through eating only osmoregulating prey.B drink seawater and secrete overfill ions with their kidneys only.C osmoregulate without using a move epithelium for this purpose.D drink seawater and secrete excess ions greatly through their nasal salt glands.E have actually plasma the is isoosmotic to s water.


Osmoconforming sharks take in water, together needed,A via active transport that water throughout the cell on your gills.B via osmosis, as their body cells are slightly hyperosmotic come seawater.C by moving to freshwater rivers to drink fresh water.D by water diffusion native seawater, i beg your pardon is hyperosmotic come the fluids in your cells.E by selective carry of water molecules throughout the wall of the gut.


A person who has no access to new water but is required to drink seawater insteadA will build structural alters in the kidneys to accommodate the salt overload.B will risk becoming overhydrated within 12 hours. C will certainly excrete much more water molecules 보다 taken in, due to the fact that of the high load of ion ingestion.D will discover that drinking saltwater satiates his thirst.E will thrive under such conditions, as lengthy as he has lived at the ocean many of his life.


Ammonia is likely to be the major nitrogenous rubbish in living conditions that includeA many seawater, such together a bird life in a naval environment.B many seawater, such together a maritime mammal (e.g., a polar bear). C lots of fresh water flowing across the gills the a fish.D a moist system of burrows, such as those of nude mole rats.E a terrestrial environment, such as that supporting crickets.


Among vertebrate animals, ureaA is added to the waiting in the lungs to be exhaled, together with carbon dioxide.B is make in the kidneys and also immediately excreted.C is make in the liver by combining 2 ammonia molecules with one carbon dioxide.D is made in the kidnize and added to the minister contents, along with bile salts, because that excretion.E is seldom the nitrogenous garbage of choice.


This renal-adjusting hormone can not be stored in ~ the cells wherein it is synthesized.A anti-diuretic hormoneB aldosteroneC reninD angiotensin IIE atrial natriuretic peptide


The structure component(s) of the mammalian nephron whereby the transcytosis the water increases because of the activity of anti-diuretic hormone is/are the _____.A Bowman"s capsulesB afferent and also efferent arteriolesC nephrons D collecting ductE glomeruli


In humans, the transfer epithelial cell in the ascending loop that Henle A have actually plasma membrane of short permeability come water. B space the largest epithelial cell in the body.C have actually 50% of their cell mass made of smooth endoplasmic reticulum.D space not in call with interstitial fluid.E are not influenced by high level of nitrogenous wastes.


Urea is produced in theA liver from glycogen.B bladder native uric acid and H2O.C kidney from glycerol and fatty acids.D liver indigenous NH3 and CO2.E kidneys from glucose.


The body fluids of one osmoconformer would be ________ through its ________ environment.A hyperosmotic; saltwaterB hypoosmotic; saltwaterC isoosmotic; saltwaterD isotonic; freshwaterE hyperosmotic; freshwater


Compared to the seawater around them, most maritime invertebrates areA hypoosmotic and also isoosmotic.B hyperosmotic and isoosmotic. C isoosmotic.D hyperosmotic.E hypoosmotic.


Materials are returned to the blood indigenous the filtrate through which of the complying with processes? A filtrationB excretionC ultrafiltrationD selective reabsorptionE secretion


The filtrate in the renal pelvis enters straight from A the collecting duct.B the loop the Henle.C Bowman"s capsule.D the glomerulus.E the proximal tubule.


The filtrate in the proximal convoluted tubule that the human being does not usually includeA glucose.B ions. C plasma proteins.D liquified gasses.E amino acids.


Which the the following animals generally has actually the shortest volume of pee production?A a naval bony fishB a shark inhabiting freshwater Lake NicaraguaC a salmon in fresh waterD a freshwater bony fishE a vampire bat


Under the influence of antidiuretic hormone (ADH), _____ is produced.A to pee containing much more glucoseB bloody urineC urine containing a lower concentration of ureaD an ext concentrated urineE Less focused urine


Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) makes the _____ permeable come water.A ascending part of the loop of Henle B collecting ductC Bowman"s capsuleD proximal tubuleE descending section of the loop of Henle


Which that the complying with statements is true?A The kidneys regulate water and blood glucose in terrestrial vertebrates.B The kidneys room paired guts that regulate water and electrolyte balance in terrestrial vertebrates.C The kidneys room paired guts that remove nitrogenous wastes native the urine.D most humans have actually one kidney, which regulates water and also electrolyte balance, gets rid of nitrogenous wastes indigenous the blood, and also eliminates the wastes in the urine.


What is the straightforward functional unit of the kidney?AThe renal corpuscle.B The Malpighian tubule.C The medulla.D The nephron.


Which of the adhering to represents the exactly sequence of circulation through the nephron?A Renal corpuscle > proximal tubule > loop of Henle > distal tubule > collecting ductB Distal tubule > loop of Henle > collecting duct > renal corpuscle > proximal tubuleC Renal corpuscle > loop the Henle > collecting duct > proximal tubule > distal tubuleD Renal corpuscle > distal tubule > proximal tubule > loop the Henle > collecting duct


Which areas of the nephron function independently that hormonal control for the most part?A Renal corpuscle and collecting duct.B Proximal tubule, loop of Henle, and distal tubule.C Renal corpuscle, proximal tubule, and loop of Henle.D Distal tubule and also collecting duct.


Aldosterone is _____.A a protein hormone the decreases blood press without an altering blood volumeB decreases water reabsorption in the kidneysC is exit in an excellent quantities once ethanol intoxication takes placed a steroid hormone that reduces the quantity of fluid excreted in the urineE triggers the conversion of angiotensinogen right into angiotensin II


Osmoregulatory convey via the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system can be prompted byA significant sweating top top a hot day.B resting for one hour.C eat a pizza through olives and pepperoni.D eating a bag the potato chips.E drinking numerous glasses that water.


When created by aldosterone, the reabsorption that Na+ is enhanced alongA the glomerulus.B Bowman"s capsule.C the distal tubule.D the proximal tubule.E the loop that Henle.


No energy required for transport Epithelium always permeable come water plenty of aquaporins (water channels) but almost no ion channels


Passive transport of NaCl in the thin segment and energetic transport that NaCl in the special segmentNo aquaporins (water channels)


ct:Hormones control permeability to water and transport that NaClActive deliver of NaCl associated with ns of water native filtrate


The high osmolarity of the renal medulla is maintained by every one of the following exceptA energetic transport that salt indigenous the upper region of the ascending limb.B diffusion the salt from the thin segment that the ascending limb of the loop of Henle.C diffusion of urea from the collecting duct.D the spatial setup of juxtamedullary nephrons.E diffusion the salt native the descending body of the loop the Henle.


Osmoregulation and also excretion are _____.A chemical processes that completely stop throughout torpor and hibernationB mechanisms because that the homeostatic control of human body temperatureC mechanisms that require continuous water lossD methods that animals control their outside environmentE mechanisms that preserve volume and composition of human body fluids


Select the correct statement around osmolarity.A Osmolarity actions the moles of solute every liter that solution.B If two remedies are be separate by a selectively permeable membrane, water flows by osmosis from a hyperosmotic systems to a hypoosmotic one.C The contents of an animal cell space hyperosmotic.


Select the correct statement relenten the osmolarity the mammalian urine.A Mammalian to pee is always hyperosmotic to blood.B The osmolarity the mammalian to pee varies tiny between speciesC The osmolarity that mammalian urine may vary end time.


What is the difference in between a countercurrent multiplier system, such as the one involving the loop of Henle, and the countercurrent solution that maximize oxygen absorption by fish gills or reduce warmth loss in endotherms?A A countercurrent multiplier system, such together the one involving the loop of Henle, requires movement of ions fairly than motion of oxygen or heat transfer.B unlike the other countercurrent systems, a countercurrent multiplier system, such together the one entailing the loop the Henle, expends power in active transport.C A countercurrent multiplier system, such as the one involving the loop that Henle, contains a capillary bed.

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Where and also when does osmolarity of the filtrate increase?A together the filtrate moves v the proximal tubuleB together the filtrate moves as much as the cortex in the ascending body of the loopC together the filtrate moves down the descending body of the loop of Henle


Compared to the seawater about them, most naval invertebrates areA hyperosmotic and isoosmotic.B hypoosmotic.C isoosmotic.D hyperosmotic.E hypoosmotic and also isoosmotic


As a an outcome of the non-selectivity that the kidney"s filtration of tiny molecules, _____.A the kidneys have tiny control over body liquid compositionB helpful substances have to be selectively reabsorbedC many helpful substances are shed in the urineD to pee is constantly much less concentrated than bloodtE that proportions of every the building material in the blood space the same as in the urine


As filtrate moves down the loop that Henle, the bordering interstitial fluid becomes _____ concentrated than the filtrate, for this reason _____ pipeline the filtrate.A an ext ... UreaB much less ... UreaC much more ... WaterD much less ... WaterE much less ... Water and urea


The most abundant solute in to pee is _____.A glucoseB waterC plasma proteinsD sodium chlorideE urea (and other nitrogenous wastes)


Glucose is removed from filtrate by _____A secretionB diffusionC dialysisD active transportE osmosis


This renal-adjusting hormone cannot be stored within the cells wherein it is synthesized.A aldosteroneB anti-diuretic hormoneC angiotensin IID reninE atrial natriuretic peptide


If ATP manufacturing in a human kidney was all of sudden halted, urine production wouldA increase, and also the urine would certainly be isoosmotic contrasted to plasma.B decrease, and also the urine would certainly be isoosmotic contrasted to plasma.C increase, and also the urine would be hyperosmotic compared to plasma.D decrease, and the urine would be hypoosmotic contrasted to plasma.E involved a finish halt.