1) You simply received a freshwater aquarium as a gift and also decide to add more fish. When you gain to the pet keep, you find that the many beautiful fish are saltwater pets, but you decide to buy them anymethod. What will take place when you put your expensive saltwater fish in your freshwater aquarium?A)The fish will certainly gain larger more quickly in the healthier conditions of fresh water.B) Nothing: the fish will certainly live typically.C) The cells of the fish will take up also a lot water, and the fish will certainly die.D) The fish will dehydrate and die.E) In the much better problems of fresh water, the fish change and execute better than in salt water.

You are watching: The movement of substances from the blood into the proximal tubule is known as _____.


Terrestrial pets are _____.A) likely to have the same troubles with osmoregulation as do freshwater fishB) osmoregulators that should acquire water from the environmentC) obligated to safeguard their eggs from drying with water-resistant shellsD) commonly nocturnalE) either arthropods or vertebrates


Birds, insects, and many type of reptiles excrete nitrogenous waste in the form of uric acid, which _____.A) reduces power use compared to various other nitrogenous wastes, yet is highly toxic to animals that create itB) reduces water loss compared to various other nitrogenous wastes, yet is very toxicC) reduces water loss compared to various other nitrogenous wastes, yet calls for even more metabolic power to produceD) is much even more soluble in water than other nitrogenous wastes, however is energetically costlier than various other nitrogenous wastes to synthesize


Urine developed by a kidney collects in the _____ prior to being drained from the kidney by the _____ and transported to the _____.A urethra ... urinary bladder ... ureterB renal pelvis ... medulla ... cortexC renal pelvis ... ureter ...urinary bladderD renal pelvis ... urethra ... urinary bladderE ureter ... renal pelvis ... urinary bladder


The _____ are the major blood vessels moving blood to the kidneysA pulmonary arteriesB glomerulusC renal arteriesD renal veinsE venae cavae


In which area of the nephron is a steep osmotic gradient created?A Loop of Henle.B Distal tubule.C Collecting duct.D Proximal tubule.


Which of the complying with statements finest describes the actions of the hormone ADH on the nephron?A ADH reasons the distal tubule to boost Na+ reabsorption when Na+ levels in the blood are low.B ADH causes the proximal tubule to rise glucose reabsorption when the body"s energy needs are high.C ADH reasons the loop of Henle to increase urea reabsorption under problems of dehydration.D ADH causes the collecting duct to rise water reabsorption by the bordering tworry under problems of dehydration.


What is the driving force for the filtration of blood by the renal corpuscle?A The visibility of microvilli.B Higher pressure in glomerular capillaries than in the neighboring Bowman"s capsule.C The diffusion of little solutes such as urea down a concentration gradient.D The existence of big pores in the glomerular capillaries and also filtration slits.


The movement of substances from the blood right into the proximal tubule is recognized as _____. A filtrationB dialysis C secretionD reabsorptionE none of these


Which of these is retook in from filtrateA sodium chlorideB glucoseC waterD amino acids E all of these


As filtprice moves down the loop of Henle, the surrounding interstitial fluid becomes _____ concentrated than the filtrate, so _____ leaves the filtprice. A More…urea B much less ... ureaC more ... waterD much less ... waterE less ... water and also urea


The many plentiful solute in urine is _____.A Glucose B waterc plasma proteinsd sodium chloridee urea (and various other nitrogenous wastes)


Glucose is removed from filtrate by _____.A secretionB diffusionC dialysisD energetic transportE osmosis


The liquid through the highest osmolarity isA Distillesd water B estuarine water.C plasma in mammals.D plasma in birds.E seawater in a tidal pool.


Birds that live in marine atmospheres and also hence absence accessibility to fresh drinking waterA obtain water by eating only osmoregulating prey.B drink seawater and secrete excess ions through their kidneys just.C osmomanage without making use of a deliver epithelium for this function.D drink seawater and also secrete excess ions largely with their nasal salt glands.E have plasma that is isoosmotic to sea water.


Osmocondeveloping sharks take in water, as essential,A through energetic move of water across the cells on their gills.B via osmosis, as their body cells are slightly hyperosmotic to seawater.C by migrating to freshwater rivers to drink fresh water.D by water diffusion from seawater, which is hyperosmotic to the fluids in their cells.E by selective carry of water molecules throughout the wevery one of the gut.


A huguy who has no access to fresh water but is required to drink seawater insteadA will certainly construct structural alters in the kidneys to accommoday the salt overfill.B will danger becoming overhydrated within 12 hours. C will certainly excrete even more water molecules than taken in, because of the high load of ion ingestion.D will certainly discover that drinking saltwater satiates his thirst.E will certainly thrive under such conditions, as long as he has actually lived at the sea most of his life.


Ammonia is most likely to be the primary nitrogenous waste in living conditions that includeA several seawater, such as a bird living in a marine setting.B several seawater, such as a marine mammal (e.g., a polar bear). C numerous fresh water flowing across the gills of a fish.D a moist device of burrows, such as those of naked mole rats.E a terrestrial environment, such as that sustaining crickets.


Amongst vertebrate animals, ureaA is included to the air in the lungs to be exhaled, along with carbon dioxide.B is made in the kidneys and also automatically excreted.C is made in the liver by combining two ammonia molecules through one carbon dioxide.D is made in the pancreas and also added to the intestinal contents, together with bile salts, for excretion.E is seldom the nitrogenous waste of choice.


This renal-adjusting hormone cannot be stored within the cells wright here it is synthesized.A anti-diuretic hormoneB aldosteroneC reninD angiotensin IIE atrial natriuretic peptide


The structural component(s) of the mammalian nephron wbelow the transcytosis of water increases as a result of the action of anti-diuretic hormone is/are the _____.A Bowman"s capsulesB afferent and also efferent arteriolesC nephrons D collecting ductE glomeruli


In human beings, the carry epithelial cells in the ascfinishing loop of Henle A have actually plasma membranes of low permeability to water. B are the largest epithelial cells in the body.C have actually 50% of their cell mass made of smooth endoplasmic reticulum.D are not in contact via interstitial fluid.E are not impacted by high levels of nitrogenous wastes.


Urea is produced in theA liver from glycogen.B bladder from uric acid and H2O.C kidneys from glycerol and fatty acids.D liver from NH3 and also CO2.E kidneys from glucose.


The body fluids of an osmoconprevious would certainly be ________ via its ________ setting.A hyperosmotic; saltwaterB hypoosmotic; saltwaterC isoosmotic; saltwaterD isotonic; freshwaterE hyperosmotic; freshwater


Contrasted to the seawater approximately them, the majority of marine invertebrates areA hypoosmotic and also isoosmotic.B hyperosmotic and isoosmotic. C isoosmotic.D hyperosmotic.E hypoosmotic.


Materials are went back to the blood from the filtrate through which of the adhering to processes? A filtrationB excretionC ultrafiltrationD selective reabsorptionE secretion


The filtprice in the renal pelvis enters directly from A the collecting duct.B the loop of Henle.C Bowman"s capsule.D the glomerulus.E the proximal tubule.


The filtrate in the proximal convoluted tubule of the humale does not normally includeA glucose.B ions. C plasma proteins.D dissolved gasses.E amino acids.


Which of the following pets primarily has actually the lowest volume of urine production?A a marine bony fishB a shark inhabiting freshwater Lake NicaraguaC a salmon in fresh waterD a freshwater bony fishE a vampire bat


Under the influence of antidiuretic hormone (ADH), _____ is produced.A urine containing more glucoseB bloody urineC urine containing a reduced concentration of ureaD even more focused urineE Less focused urine


Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) provides the _____ permeable to water.A ascending portion of the loop of Henle B collecting ductC Bowman"s capsuleD proximal tubuleE descending percent of the loop of Henle


Which of the following statements is true?A The kidneys regulate water and blood glucose in terrestrial vertebprices.B The kidneys are paired organs that control water and electrolyte balance in terrestrial vertebprices.C The kidneys are paired organs that remove nitrogenous wastes from the urine.D Many humans have one kidney, which regulates water and electrolyte balance, gets rid of nitrogenous wastes from the blood, and eliminates the wastes in the urine.


What is the basic useful unit of the kidney?AThe renal corpuscle.B The Malpighian tubule.C The medulla.D The nephron.


Which of the following represents the correct sequence of flow via the nephron?A Renal corpuscle > proximal tubule > loop of Henle > distal tubule > collecting ductB Distal tubule > loop of Henle > collecting duct > renal corpuscle > proximal tubuleC Renal corpuscle > loop of Henle > collecting duct > proximal tubule > distal tubuleD Renal corpuscle > distal tubule > proximal tubule > loop of Henle > collecting duct


Which areas of the nephron function individually of hormonal control for the many part?A Renal corpuscle and collecting duct.B Proximal tubule, loop of Henle, and distal tubule.C Renal corpuscle, proximal tubule, and loop of Henle.D Distal tubule and also collecting duct.


Aldosterone is _____.A a protein hormone that decreases blood push without transforming blood volumeB decreases water reabsorption in the kidneysC is released in excellent quantities when ethanol intoxication takes placeD a steroid hormone that reduces the amount of liquid excreted in the urineE triggers the convariation of angiotensinogen into angiotensin II


Osmoregulatory adjustment through the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone mechanism have the right to be motivated byA serious sweating on a hot day.B sleeping for one hour.C eating a pizza via oresides and also pepperoni.D eating a bag of potato chips.E drinking numerous glasses of water.


When created by aldosterone, the reabsorption of Na+ is raised alongA the glomerulus.B Bowman"s capsule.C the distal tubule.D the proximal tubule.E the loop of Henle.


No energy compelled for transfer Epithelium constantly permeable to water Many aquaporins (water channels) however nearly no ion channels


Passive deliver of NaCl in the thin segment and also energetic carry of NaCl in the thick segmentNo aquaporins (water channels)


ct:Hormones control permeability to water and deliver of NaClActive deliver of NaCl linked through loss of water from filtrate


The high osmolarity of the renal medulla is maintained by every one of the adhering to exceptA energetic carry of salt from the upper area of the ascfinishing limb.B diffusion of salt from the thin segment of the ascending limb of the loop of Henle.C diffusion of urea from the collecting duct.D the spatial arrangement of juxtamedullary nephrons.E diffusion of salt from the descfinishing limb of the loop of Henle.


Osmoregulation and also excretion are _____.A chemical procedures that entirely sheight throughout torpor and hibernationB mechanisms for the homeostatic manage of body temperatureC mechanisms that call for continual water lossD methods that pets manage their exterior environmentE mechanisms that preserve volume and also complace of body fluids


Select the correct statement around osmolarity.A Osmolarity actions the moles of solute per liter of solution.B If two services are separated by a selectively permeable membrane, water flows by osmosis from a hyperosmotic solution to a hypoosmotic one.C The contents of an pet cell are hyperosmotic.


Select the correct statement describing the osmolarity of mammalian urine.A Mammalian urine is constantly hyperosmotic to blood.B The osmolarity of mammalian urine varies little bit in between speciesC The osmolarity of mammalian urine may vary over time.


What is the difference between a counterexisting multiplier device, such as the one entailing the loop of Henle, and the counterexisting devices that maximize oxygen absorption by fish gills or alleviate warm loss in endotherms?A A counterexisting multiplier system, such as the one involving the loop of Henle, entails activity of ions quite than movement of oxygen or warm deliver.B Unchoose the various other counterexisting units, a counterexisting multiplier mechanism, such as the one including the loop of Henle, expends energy in active move.C A counterexisting multiplier device, such as the one entailing the loop of Henle, consists of a capillary bed.

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Wright here and as soon as does osmolarity of the filtprice increase?A As the filtprice moves via the proximal tubuleB As the filtprice moves approximately the cortex in the ascfinishing limb of the loopC As the filtprice moves down the descending limb of the loop of Henle


Contrasted to the seawater roughly them, most marine invertebprices areA hyperosmotic and isoosmotic.B hypoosmotic.C isoosmotic.D hyperosmotic.E hypoosmotic and also isoosmotic


As an outcome of the non-selectivity of the kidney"s filtration of little molecules, _____.A the kidneys have bit control over body fluid compositionB helpful substances need to be selectively reabsorbedC many valuable substances are shed in the urineD urine is constantly much less focused than bloodtE he proparts of all the substances in the blood are the exact same as in the urine


As filtrate moves down the loop of Henle, the bordering interstitial liquid becomes _____ concentrated than the filtrate, so _____ leaves the filtprice.A more ... ureaB much less ... ureaC more ... waterD much less ... waterE much less ... water and urea


The the majority of abundant solute in urine is _____.A glucoseB waterC plasma proteinsD sodium chlorideE urea (and also other nitrogenous wastes)


Glucose is rerelocated from filtrate by _____A secretionB diffusionC dialysisD energetic transportE osmosis


This renal-adjusting hormone cannot be stored within the cells wbelow it is synthesized.A aldosteroneB anti-diuretic hormoneC angiotensin IID reninE atrial natriuretic peptide


If ATP production in a human kidney was suddenly stopped, urine production wouldA rise, and also the urine would certainly be isoosmotic compared to plasma.B decrease, and the urine would certainly be isoosmotic compared to plasma.C boost, and also the urine would certainly be hyperosmotic compared to plasma.D decrease, and also the urine would certainly be hypoosmotic compared to plasma.E pertained to a finish halt.