Presentation on theme: "Warm Up 11/18 The broad, slightly dome-shaped volcanoes of Hawaii are ____. a. cinder cone volcanoesc. pyroclastic volcanoes b. composite cone volcanoesd."— Presentation transcript:




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1 Warm Up 11/18 The wide, slightly dome-shaped volcanoes of Hawaii are ____. a. cinder cone volcanoesc. pyroclastic volcanoes b. compowebsite cone volcanoesd. shield volcanoes The most violent volcanic eruptions are connected via what type of volcano? a. compowebsite conesc. fissure eruptions b. shield volcanoesd. cinder cones A magma’s viscosity is straight related to its ____. a. agec. silica content b. depthd. color Answers: 1) d. 2) a.

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3) c.

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2 Intrusive Igneous ActivityChapter 10, Section 2

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3 Plutons Plutons – structures that result from the cooling and hardening of magma at depth They have the right to only be studied after uplift and also erosion have exposed them to the surconfront Intrusive igneous bodies, or pluloads, are mainly classified according to their shape, size, and partnership to the surrounding rock layers

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4 Sills and Laccoliths Sills and laccoliths are pluloads that form when magma is intruded cshed to the surchallenge Sill – creates as soon as magma is injected along sedimentary bedding surencounters, parallel to the bedding planes For a sill to form, the sedimentary rock must be lifted to a height equal to the thickness of the sill Laccoliths – creates when magma intrudes right into sedimentary bedding surencounters, collects as a lens-shaped mass that pushes the overlying strata upwards

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5 Sills

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6 Laccoliths

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7 Concept Check How are sills and laccoliths alike?They are both plulots created by magma intrusions close to the surface How are sills and also laccoliths different? They differ in form and also generally composition

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8 Dikes and Batholiths Dikes – plulots that create once magma is injected right into fractures, cutting across preexisting rock layers Many dikes develop when magma from a big magma chamber invades fractures in the neighboring rocks Batholiths – the biggest intrusive bodies, need to have actually a surface exposure greater than 100 square kilometers Batholiths might form the core of hill arrays

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9 Dikes

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10 Batholiths

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11 Basic Igneous Structures

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12 Origin of Magma Earth’s crust and also mantle are written primarily of solid, not molten, rock, and the liquid iron in the outer core is as well dense to travel all the way to the surconfront Geologists conclude that magma originates when essentially solid rock, located in the crust and upper mantle, partially melts The many obvious method to geneprice magma from solid rock is to raise the temperature over the level at which the rock begins to melt

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13 The Role of Heat The price of readjust of temperature as you relocate down right into the upper crust is ~20-30º per kilometer Geothermal Gradient – the change in temperature via depth At a depth of ~100 kilometres, temperature varieties from 1400ºC and also 1600ºC, nearly the melting point of rock Subduction areas add friction (another means to produce heat) and also water (which lowers the melting temperature of rock) to give the added heat essential to melt the crustal rocks Hotter mantle rocks deserve to rise and also intrude into crustal rocks, melting them

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14 Geothermal Gradient

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15 Concept Check What is a geothermal gradient?The change in temperature with depth

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16 Magma Formation at Subduction Zones

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17 The Role of Pressure Prescertain also increases via depthMelting occurs at higher temperatures as you go deeper into Earth, bereason a rise in the confining push causes a boost in the rock’s melting temperature Reducing that confining pressure lowers a rock’s melting temperature Decompression Melting – prompted when the confining press drops enough to melt the rock

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