Author Affiliations

J. Scott Tyo,2Dennis L. Goldstein,3David B. Chenault,4and Joseph A. Shaw5

1When this research study was performed, J. S. Tyo (tyo
ieee.org) was with the Department of Electrical and also Computer Engineering, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131.

You are watching: Review of passive imaging polarimetry for remote sensing applications

2He is currently through the College of Optical Sciences, College of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721.

3D. L. Goldstein (dennis.goldstein
eglin.af.mil) is via the U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory∕MNGI, Eglin Air Force Base, Florida 32542.

4D. B. Chenault (david
polarissensor.com) is through Polaris Sensor Technologies, Incorporated, 200 West Side Square, Suite 320, Huntsville, Alabama 35801.

5J. A. Shaw (jshaw
ece.montana.edu) is with the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Montana State University, Bozeman, Montana 59717.

See more: You Get A Line I Get A Pole Lyrics, Crawdad Song: About The Song


*

J. Scott Tyo, Dennis L. Goldstein, David B. Chenault, and also Joseph A. Shaw, "Rewatch of passive imaging polarimeattempt for remote sensing applications," Appl. Opt. 45, 5453-5469 (2006)
Previously assigned OCIS codesImaging devices (110.0110)Remote sensing and sensors (120.0280)Polarimetry (120.5410)
HistoryOriginal Manuscript: November 17, 2005Revised Manuscript: April 4, 2006Manuscript Accepted: April 6, 2006

Abstract

Imaging polarimeattempt has arised over the previous 3 years as a powerful tool to enhance theindevelopment obtainable in a variety of remote sensing applications. Wediscuss the structures of passive imaging polarimeattempt, the phenomenological factors forcreating a polarimetric sensor, and the main architectures that have actually been exploited forarising imaging polarimeters. Considerations on imaging polarimeters such as calibration,optimization, and error performance are also discussed. We testimonial many kind of crucial sources andexamples from the clinical literature.

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AdvantagesDisadvantages
Visible, NIR, SWIR• Sun is a solid source• Strongly dependent on geometry
Usual signal: 1%–60%• High dynamic range of polarization signatures• High dynamic selection of signatures
Sensor resolution: >1%–2%• Sensors cheaper, simpler to build and also calibrate• Incontinual signatures
• Small well dimension for FPAs limits
polarimetric resolution
• No night operation
MWIR• Good signatures for warm targets• Signatures combicountry of
Typical signal: 0.1%–25%• Night operationemissive and reflective
Sensor resolution: >0.2%• Large well sizes for FPA for better sensitivity• Sensors require cooling
• Sensors more expensive and
hard to build and also calibrate
LWIR• Signatures dominated by emission• Sensors call for cooling
Typical signal: 0.1%–20%• Less dynamic array for polarization signatures• Sensors most expensive and
Sensor resolution: • Night operation

Close
×Table 2
Comparikid of Imaging Polarimeattempt Architectures
Design FeaturesFabrication–Integration Issues, CostMisregistration IssuesDivision of aperture (single FPA)
Rotating element• Robust• Easiest to implement• Scene and also platcreate motion
• Relatively small• Inexpensive• Beam wander not a problem
• Not suitable for dynamicor rerelocated in software
scenes• Misregistration is linear
Division of amplitude• Simultaneous acquisition• High mechanical flexibility• Must register multiple FPAs
(multiple FPAs)• Large device sizeand also rigidity required• Misregistration can be fixed
• Expensive• Can be nonlinear
• Large
• Simultaneous acquisition• Loss of spatial resolution• Fixed misregistration
• Smaller size• Expensive• Can be nonlinear
Division of focal plane• Simultaneous acquisition• Fabrication difficult• IFOVs misregistered
• Small and rugged• Alignment difficult• Requires interpolation
• Loss of spatial resolution• Very expensive• Fixed registration
Coboresighted• Simultaneous acquisition• Easy integration• Misregistration not as stable
• Best used at lengthy ranges• Expensive

Close
×Tables (2)
Table 1

Polarization Phenomenology and Effects from the Visible to the LWIR


AdvantagesDisadvantagesVisible, NIR, SWIR
• Sun is a strong source• Strongly dependent on geometry
Typical signal: 1%–60%• High dynamic array of polarization signatures• High dynamic selection of signatures
Sensor resolution: >1%–2%• Sensors cheaper, much easier to construct and also calibrate• Inconstant signatures
• Small well size for FPAs limits
polarimetric resolution
• No night operation
MWIR• Good signatures for warm targets• Signatures combicountry of
Common signal: 0.1%–25%• Night operationemissive and reflective
Sensor resolution: >0.2%• Large well sizes for FPA for better sensitivity• Sensors require cooling
• Sensors more expensive and
challenging to construct and also calibrate
LWIR• Signatures dominated by emission• Sensors need cooling
Typical signal: 0.1%–20%• Less dynamic variety for polarization signatures• Sensors the majority of expensive and
Sensor resolution: • Night operation

Deauthorize FeaturesFabrication–Integration Issues, CostMisregistration IssuesDivision of aperture (single FPA)
Rotating element• Robust• Easiest to implement• Scene and also platcreate motion
• Relatively small• Inexpensive• Beam wander not a problem
• Not suitable for dynamicor removed in software
scenes• Misregistration is linear
Division of amplitude• Simultaneous acquisition• High mechanical flexibility• Must register multiple FPAs
(multiple FPAs)• Large mechanism sizeand rigidity required• Misregistration can be fixed
• Expensive• Can be nonlinear
• Large
• Simultaneous acquisition• Loss of spatial resolution• Fixed misregistration
• Smaller size• Expensive• Can be nonlinear
Division of focal plane• Simultaneous acquisition• Fabrication difficult• IFOVs misregistered
• Small and also rugged• Alignment difficult• Requires interpolation
• Loss of spatial resolution• Very expensive• Fixed registration
Coboresighted• Simultaneous acquisition• Easy integration• Misregistration not as stable
• Best provided at lengthy ranges• Expensive