In the joined States, males account for around _____ of every arrests because that violent crime.

You are watching: Looking back in history, the oldest justification for punishing an offender is ________

about 80 percent

Albert Cohen suggested that lower-class youths form a delinquent subculture to obtain the self-respect that culture denies them.

true

The ide of criminal recidivism describes ________

later offenses by people previously judge of crimes.

In legitimate terms, a crime is created of which two components?

The act and criminal intent

Today in the joined States, women are arrested for building crimes at the same price as men are.

false

According come Robert Merton’s strain theory, how would girlfriend classify a low-paid, yet compulsively conforming financial institution teller who never seems to want to get ahead but never seems to execute anything wrong?

Ritualist

Organized crime ad to supplying legal goods and also services at below market prices.

false

Robert Merton asserted that the "strains the masculinity" are crucial cause the crime.

false

"The well-known violation of cultural norms" describes the ide of ________

deviance

An instance of the "medicalization of deviance" is ________

theft gift redefined as a "compulsive stealing."

The ide of due procedure refers to ________

the criminal justice device operating in ~ the limit of the law.

His friends begin to slam Marco together a "juice-head," pushing him out of their social circle. Feeling rejected, Marco starts to drink also more, i do not care bitter, and also joins a new group of girlfriend who additionally are hefty drinkers. Follow to Lemert, Marco’s case illustrates ________

the onset of second deviance.

According to Durkheim, features of deviance incorporate ________

the idea that responding come deviance promotes society unity.

Based on your reading, it would be exactly to say that organic approaches sell ________

a very limited understanding that crime.

According come Robert Merton’s stress, overload theory, the term ________would correctly define a gangster like Al Capone, who made a lot of money breaking the law.

innovator

The stigma the deviance have the right to encourage an individual to communicate in additional deviance.

true

If a parent threatens a child with penalty in order to discourage wrongdoing, the parental is making use of punishment to achieve ________

deterrence

Edwin Sutherland proclaimed that white-collar crime ________

is usually solved in a civil rather than a criminal court.

Crime cursed by people of high social position throughout the course of your occupations is referred to as ________

white-collar crime.

Feminist theory states that gender numbers into the research of deviance since ________

every society in the world uses stronger normative controls come females than to males.

In the unified States, also though the crime rate has gone down in recent years, the number of people in prison has actually gone up.

true

According come Robert Merton’s strain theory, the ax _______ correctly explains the actions of a radical activist who rejects just around everything in the existing society in favor of some alternate system.

rebel

The likelihood a person will it is in arrested because that a street crime rises high solution ________

during the late teenage years.

Participating in the subculture that Elijah Anderson defines as "the password of the streets" raises the risk that young people will finish up ________

in jail or worse.

Psychiatrist cutting board Szasz claims that the label of "insanity" is widely applied to habits that is actually only "different."

true

What walk the story about the conviction and also imprisonment the Bruce Glover suggest around punishment in the unified States?

Convicts have the right to lose everything important to them while in jail and, after ~ release, they often struggle come fit back into society.

Travis Hirschi’s manage theory makes the allude that civilization who commit crimes commonly have tiny concern about the potential consequences.

true

Edwin Lemert described "primary deviance" together ________

the amount of call a person has actually with others who encourage or discourage standard behavior.

Probation and parole space two species of community-based corrections.

true

According come Elliot Currie, factors that describe the high crime price in the United says by human being standards include ________

our emphasis on individual economic success, i beg your pardon weakens the society fabric.

Looking ago in history, the oldest justification because that punishing an offender is ________

retribution

"Primary deviance" describes the most serious offenses.

false

Walter Reckless and Simon Dinitz occurred containment theory, which insurance claims that a solid superego or conscience help boys continue to be out that trouble.

true

A negative person who has small chance to go to college and also who selling illegal drugs to make money is one instance of what Robert Merton called a deviant "innovator."

true

A dislike crime is characterized as ________

a criminal act motivated by gyeongju or various other bias.

Prostitution is widely concerned as a ________

victimless crime.

The old saying, "An eye for an eye," expresses the idea basic the policy of rehabilitation.

false

"Crime" differs from "deviance" in the crime ________

refers come a violation of standards enacted into law.

Labeling concept stresses that part actions are constantly wrong simply as others are always right.

false

The concept "retrospective labeling" refers to the process of ________

interpreting someone’s past continuous with existing deviance.

Both Albert Cohen and Walter müller argue that delinquency is most likely to arise among ________

low-income youths.

Using a Marxist approach, Steven Spitzer cases that element targets because that deviant labeling encompass ________

people who try to take the residential or commercial property of others.

What is considered deviant is largely the same behavior all approximately the world.

false

In general, human being of greater social class position are much less likely to it is in arrested for street crime than world of lower class position.

true

The straightforward idea behind labeling concept is that ________

deviance arises no so lot from what civilization do as exactly how others respond to what castle do.

Research says that, v regard to social class, arrest for serious crime ________

is greater for human being at in lower class levels.

In his examine of brand-new England’s Puritans, Kai Erikson concluded that ________

even this disciplined and highly spiritual group produced deviance to clarify the moral borders of their community.

The United claims is the only Western, high-income nation that regularly imposes the death penalty on convicted offenders.

true

The correct view of the function of biology in causing human being to commit crimes is the ________

biological factors may have a actual but small effect in leading to some human being to walk crimes.

Whether human being respond to deviance together a moral issue or a medical matter affects ________

whether the person is topic to punishment or treatment.

If a parent intimidates a child with punishment in order come discourage wrongdoing, the parent is utilizing punishment to attain ________

deterrence

According to the social-conflict approach, deviance has a number of useful functions for the operation of society as a whole.

False

Most criminal situations handled by the criminal justice device in the United states are resolved ________

through plea bargaining.

In terms of racial categories, many of the people in the United says arrested because that FBI table of contents crimes room ________

white

Women commit ________

a far smaller re-superstructure of crimes 보다 men.

Every human charged through a crime in the United states is sentenced after receiving a attempt by jury.

false

Corporate crime describes stealing or other crimes that are committed against a coporation, group or other huge business.

false

Cloward and also Ohlin expanded Merton’s theory of deviance, stating that crime ________

reflects both limited legitimate opportunity as well as accessible illegitimate opportunity.

Reducing jail overcrowding, the prices of managing offenders, and helping offenders protect against the stigma the incarceration space all benefits of ________

community-based corrections.

Participating in the subculture the Elijah Anderson defines as "the password of the streets" raises the hazard that young world will finish up ________

in jail or worse.

Because there are number of hundred human being in the United states for every police officer, police ________

use discretion in deciding which instances warrant their attention.

"Due process" method handling alleged offenders within the bounds of the law.

true

"Crimes against the person" includes all however ________

burglary

Biological factors, including genetics, define most criminal behavior.

false

Every culture uses assorted strategies to manage the behavior of individuals; this general process is called ________

social control

Alexander Liazos speaks because that the social-conflict technique when he says that ________

Correct powerless civilization are in ~ the highest possible risk the being characterized as deviant.

Men, who represent about half the U.S. Population, account for about _____ of all arrests for home crime.

63%

According come the social-conflict approach, what a culture labels together deviant is based mostly on ________

differences in power between various category of people.

The formal mechanism that responds to alleged hurt of the legislation using police, courts, and also prison officials is dubbed ________

the criminal justice system

The "medicalization the deviance" idea points to the reality that many crimes room committed by world who room under the influence of one illegal drug.

false

One the the social foundations of deviance is that ________

deviance exists only in relationship to cultural norms.

Thomas Szasz do the controversial assertion the ________

mental illness is a myth so the "insanity" is just "differences" the bother various other people.

The value of psychological theories of deviance is limited because ________

most civilization who walk crimes have actually normal personalities.

Mike reports the theft the his dust bike indigenous the front garden of his house. The police would record this event as which type of crime?

Larceny-theft

Feminist theory claims that women, compared to men, space subject to better social control.

true

In Robert Merton’s strain theory of deviance, ___________ describes the process of seeking typical goals but rejecting the conventional method to achieve them.

innovation

A referee sentences a young guy who has actually committed number of crimes come counseling and also places the in a supportive foster home. These initiatives to prevent more wrongdoing are dubbed ________

rehabilitation

Cesare Lombroso, an Italian physician and also criminologist, asserted that many criminals were human being who had actually been mistreated through society.

false

Victimization surveys show that the actual amount of crime in the United says is about _____ what main reports indicate.

more 보다 twice together high

Travis Hirschi’s regulate theory argues that the category of people most likely to communicate in deviance is ________

youngsters that "hang out" wait for something come happen.

Walter Reckless and also Simon Dinitz declared that "good boys" have actually the capability to rein in deviant impulses. They dubbed their evaluation ________

containment theory

Emile Durkheim’s analysis suggests it would be difficult for a society to completely eliminate deviance.

true

Assume you to be listening come a lecture on Durkheim’s strategy to deviance. The focus of the lecture could be that ________

deviance is a normal aspect of social organization.

What concept did Erving Goffman use to refer to a powerful and negative label that greatly transforms a person’s self-concept and social identity?

stigma

Organized crime describes ________

any business that offers illegal products or services.

A referee orders the an offender it is in sentenced to prison for a short time, with most of the sentence offered on probation. This sentence mirrors a policy called ________

shock probation.

_________ refers to the illegal action of a corporation or world acting top top its behalf.

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corporate crime

Edwin Sutherland’s differential association theory links deviance to ________

the amount of contact a person has actually with others who encourage or discourage traditional behavior.

Of every the home crimes debated in the chapter, one crime occurs far more than all the others. Which one is it?