Consider the resonance frameworks for the carbonate ion. How much negative charge is on each oxygen of the carbonate ion? What is the bond order of each carbon-oxygen bond in the rbonate ion?

Carbonate ion acts as a base and also it deserve to develop 3 resonance frameworks. If a compound has more number of resonance structures then it is even more secure.

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Negative charge on each oxygen atom can be calculated by splitting the charge existing oxygen atoms via variety of oxygen atoms.

Calculate the bond order of each C-O bond by using the following expression.

Bondorder=TotalnumberofbondsNumberofC−Obonds mBond, morder, m = ,frac mTotal, mnumber, mof, mbonds mNumber, mof, mC - O, mbondsBondorder=NumberofC−ObondsTotalnumberofbonds​

Part a

The resonance structures of carbonate ion are, Here, two oxygen atoms have a charge of −1 - 1−1 and also various other one is neutral.

So,thenegativechargeoneachoxygenatom=−2charge3=−0.67eginarrayc\ mSo,, mthe, mnegative, mcharge, mon, meach, moxygen, matom, m = ,frac - m2, mcharge m3\\ & & & & & ,,,,,,,,,,,,, m = , - m0 m.67\endarraySo,thenegativechargeoneachoxygenatom=3−2charge​​​​​​=−0.67​

Part b

The resonance frameworks of carbonate ion are, Total number of bonds existing in the carbonate ion is four.

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Number of C-O (i.e. single bonds) bonds in carbonate ion is 3.

Bondorder=TotalnumberofbondsNumberofC−Obonds=43=1.33eginarrayc\ mBond, morder, m = ,frac mTotal, mnumber, mof, mbonds mNumber, mof, mC - O, mbonds\\, m = ,frac43\\ = ,1.33\endarrayBondorder=NumberofC−ObondsTotalnumberofbonds​=34​=1.33​

Ans: Part a

Thus, the negative charge on each oxygen atom of the carbonate ion is −0.67 - m0 m.67−0.67

Part b

Thus, the bond order at each carbon-oxygen bond in the carbonate ion is 1.331.331.33