How many amino acids (out of 715) have changed in FOXP2 since humans split from mice? 13six seven twain three
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The frequency of what types of mutations are used as a molecular clock? nonsynonymous microdeletions synonymohutch asynchronous
Which of the pathways shown in the phylogenetic tree below has undergone the most positive selection? b to Macaque (15/5) the common ancestor between Gorilla and the Human/Chimp group before the split. (1/2 and 0/0) a to b (33/3) a to c (7.5/2.5)
Approximately how long ago did behaviorally modern humans appear? 10,000 50,000-100,000 600,000 1.2 million
Approximately how many years ago did anatomically modern humans probably first appear? 50,000-60,000 600,000-700,000 2,000,000-3,500,000 100,000-120,000
How big was the parent population of modern humans immediately before the second exodus from Africa ca. 70,000-100,000 yrs ago? 5,000-10,000 1.2 millione 150
Neanderthals are thought to have had the modern configuration of the larynx and windpipe. True False
What are some examples of mutations that suggest that evolution is continuing to change our species? lactose tolerance and various disease resistance genes a double line of eyebrows in a tribe located a little south of the Williston airport hair on the backs of Bio majors
What transcription factor has undergone comparatively rapid evolution in the interval between chimps and humans, perhaps contributing to the capacity for complex language? TFIIB COX2 FOXPtwo TBP
What two actions can all vertebrates, with the exception of adult Homo sapiens, perform simultaneously? swallow and hear breathe and hear chew gum and walk swallow and breathe
What"s the difference between synonymous and nonsynonymous mutations? Nonsynonymous mutations do not result in a change in the amino acid sequence of the coded protein. Synonymous mutations do not result in a change in the amino acid sequence of the coded protein. Synonymous mutations occur much less frequently than nonsynonymous mutations.
Which of the answers below illustrates that the concept of an organism is a matter of definition? a herd ofcows a large grove of elm trees in Utah a flock of seagulls
Which of the answers below illustrates that the concept that a species is somewhat arbitrary and relative? a ring kinds a grove of elms in Utah the mycelium of mushroom
Which two forms of archaic humans made the first exodus from Africa more than 200,000 yrs ago? Homo ergaster and Homo sapiens Homo habilis and Australopithecus Homo erectus and Neanderthal
Which of the following proteins is perhaps the largest in the human genome and mutations of it have been implicated in autism, dyslexia, schizophrenia, intellectual disability, Tourette syndrome and language impairment? CNTNAP2 FOXP2 TATAAA binding protein (TBP) SRGAP2
Under what circumstances can the replication fork be bidirectional? When the origin of replication moves in one direction, and the replication eye in the opposite. When the origin of replication creates two replication forks that move in opposite directions. When the origin of replication creates two replication forks that move in the same direction at different speeds When a separate origin is used for each strand
Why does it take so long for the origin oriC to be able initiate a second round of replication? Because Dam methylase needs to interact with DnaA to be activated Because SeqA binds to hemimethylated DNA and sequesters it to the membrane Because SeqA needs to be methylated by Dam methylase Because the initiator protein DnaA cannot be found
Which enzyme methylates bacterial oriC? EcoKI methylase Dcm methylase Mec methylase Dam methylase
What is the replication fork? Point in the genome which consists of the ter sites Point in which RNA genome forms a hairpin Point in the genome where to replication eyes meet Point at which replication is occurring
Which statement is TRUE regarding replication control? Chloroplast DNA displays single-copy control. Mitochondrial DNA displays single-copy control. The bacterial chromosome can replicate several times before cell division. The Eukaryotic chromosome must activate replication only once per cell cycle.
What is the function of Tus protein? It allows the replication forks to be stopped by the ter sites in both orientations. Although the replication fork moves 10x faster than RNA polymerase, the Tus protein acts to make it move even faster. It acts as a contrahelicase by unwinding DNA in the opposite direction from the replication helicase, DnaB. It stops transcription when the replication machinery is approaching.
It acts as a contrahelicase by unwinding DNA in the opposite direction from the replication helicase, DnaB.
Bacterial origin of replication oriC consists of ________________________? Eleven GATC/CTAG repeats methylated on guanines in both strands Eleven GATC/CTAG repeats methylated on adenines in both strands Eleven GATC/CTAG repeats methylated on thymines in both strands Eleven GATC/CTAG repeats methylated on adenine in top strands only
Which chemical reaction occurring at the bacterial origin of replication plays a role in the regulation of initiation? Demethylatione Methylation Phosphorylatione Alkylation
Which function is NOT regulated by the bacterial origin of replication? Segregation Frequency of replicatione Termination of replication Initiation of replication
Which statement is TRUE? The Bacterial chromosome is a single replicon. The Chloroplast genome is a single replicon. The Mitochondrial genome is a single replicon. The Eukaryotic genome is a single replicon.
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