Larry E. Daniel, Lars E. Daniel, in Digital Forensics because that Legal Professionals, 2012

3.2.10 video game console forensics

Game consoles today, like an Xbox, Nintendo Wii, or Sony PlayStation, are all usually computers: castle contain a hard drive just like a computer, and also they run using an operation system, similar to a computer.

You are watching: Gaming consoles, such as xbox one and playstation 4, do not need an operating system.

Since they space basically computers, they store information in a similar fashion. Many human being use your gaming mechanism to browser the Internet and also watch movies, not simply for play games. This information is save on the difficult drive within the gaming console. This method that information can be recovered, consisting of deleted information from a gaming console.

To play games online making use of a console gaming system, a human being must create an virtual account. V an Xbox, for instance, a person has to subscribe come Xbox Live. This creates information that deserve to be offered as evidence since that human now has actually an digital identity, and parts the that information are conserved on the gaming console.

A gaming console and a computer system can be used in conjunction as evidence. V some gamings there is the choice to have actually e-mails sent out to you detailing your performance in a match. For instance, through the Madden football games, you have the right to have one e-mail sent out to you upon the perfect of a game that details her performance. Details like this may seem insignificant, but it deserve to be provided to ar the human at your gaming system at a specific date and time, and therefore create an alibi.


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Brett Shavers, in placing the doubt Behind the Keyboard, 2013

Game consoles

Conducting forensics on digital game consoles, such together the X-Box (http://www.xbox.com) or the playstations (http://us.playstation.com/), is not new, nor is the criminal usage of this devices. The mere figure of an digital game console in a residence typically does not instantly raise a warning flag include evidence and also may be easily overlooked. In the most simple description, these video game machines room computers, qualified of many of the features accessible in the common desktop computer. This has Internet connectivity, video and photograph creation, paper transfer, document storage, and also electronic interaction through voice, video, and also typed chat. Tough drives of differing sizes are typical as is the capability to attach external storage gadgets such as USB hard drives and also flash media cards.

A video game console may have been the instrument of a crime or contain digital evidence the a crime. Even if the game console to be not provided as an instrument of a criminal act, the historic evidentiary worth of user task may be helpful in corroborating a suspect’s alibi. Because a game console is a computer system system, the user activity is logged together such. Because that example, the Internet background on the game stations is kept in a magazine containing Internet background files (\PSP\SYSTEM\browser). This brochure stores URLs the were gone into in the browser attend to bar and bookmarks favored by the user. Websites that are discovered may be directly connected to the suspect through supplied login credentials.

Game console activity, or inactivity, may be a very important piece of evidence worrying an alibi. An alibi that playing games all night top top the night the a crime have the right to be discredited if an evaluation shows the game console no being provided at every on that night. Even if the video game console go show activity for a date in question, the place of the video game console might be accessible and necessary for the investigation.

Through the interconnectivity between online players, IP addresses, server addresses, and daily link logs room stored locally on the consoles and also by third parties that provide online services. These third parties that carry out peer-to-peer gaming or team gaming most most likely will keep the IP addresses the the video game consoles just for a certain period of time. The locally stored information consists of the link name, together as house network or broadcasted wireless network.


Matthias Rehm, in Human-Centric Interfaces because that Ambient Intelligence, 2010

13.6.1 Acceleration-Based Gesture Recognition

With the arrival of Nintendo's new game console, acceleration-based interactions have become very popular. Although most commercial gamings seem to rely on reasonably primitive information, like raw acceleration, more sophisticated gesture recognition is possible. Schlömer and also colleagues <38> made use of HMMs to analysis acceleration data. They evaluate their technique with one arbitrary collection of 5 gestures and also presented user-dependent recognition rates of approximately 93% for this five-class problem. Rehm and colleagues <36> provided acceleration-based acknowledgment to capture gestural activity that relates come the social background of the user and also demonstrated this method with the Wiimote. Functions were calculated on the raw signal. Different category techniques such as naïve Bayes, nearest neighbor, and also multilayer perceptron were compared for different gesture sets favor expressivity parameters or German emblems. Results confirmed that recognition rates are user-dependent and also that this approach is feasible v recognition rates for a seven-class difficulty of German emblems of approximately 94%, making use of a typical nearest-neighbour classfier.

In an previously study, Kela and also colleagues <23> developed a comparable approach tailored come gestures for regulating a video clip recorder and making usage of a cubelike handheld maker equipped with 3 acceleration sensors, quite like Nintendo's controller. Come come up v a realistic gesture set, Kela et al. Performed a participatory design study, which led to eight suitable gestures. Gesture evaluation was based upon HMMs and also took the filtered data right into account. User-dependent recognition rates reached 99% depending upon the variety of training samples noted to estimate the model parameters.

Urban and also colleagues <42> examined the feasibility of making use of acceleration sensors because that a marshalling task designed to manage unmanned aircrafts top top a flight desk. The general idea was to enable the marshaller to make use of the exact same gesture signal employed through manned vehicles. Two problems had come be solved for this 20-class acknowledgment task. ~ above the one hand, urban et al. Evaluate the best placement the the acceleration sensors on the upper and also lower eight for robust gesture recognition. Meanwhile they verified that time-series classifiers favor dynamic time warping for acceleration-based gesture recognition can be an effective technique.

Strachan et al. <40> faced the trouble of reconstructing 3D-movement that the hand from acceleration data. This to be no trivial task given the inherent drift the the sensors, which renders the forecast of the exact trajectory difficult. By decomposing gestures in linearly an unified motion primitives, the researcher were may be to build personalized models that gestures the a user will usage in an application. Thus, they integrated subjective idiosyncracies the gestural activity into their recognition system. Whereas this is just a by-product of their approach, the work by Lester et al. <29> was straight tailored come this challenge.

Although most approaches questioned so much focus on the recogntion of discrete gesture classes, Lester and his colleagues <29> exploited the applicability of acceleration-based techniques to determine users through their subjective idiosyncrasies in dealing with devices. In an ambient intelligence environment, the user will lug a variety of devices, which should be combination to a particular degree and interact through one another, v the environment, and of course with the user. Allowing the machine to identify who is currently carrying it can rid the user of few of the administration load. Lester and colleagues offered information about the user's details movement features to resolve this problem. To this end, they employed a facility coherence duty measuring the extent to which two signals are associated at provided frequencies.

The occupational presented here shows that acceleration-based gesture acknowledgment is feasible and that not just gestures as such can it is in recognized yet also much more subtle aspects of gestural task such together expressivity and also other idiosyncratic features, allowing, for instance, the user to it is in identified.


Steven Bolt, in XBOX 360 Forensics, 2011

Publisher Summary

The XBOX 360 is Microsoft's second production video game console and also is the evolution of the initial XBOX. This chapter discusses the video clip game console market and the distribution of the Microsoft XBOX 360. This provides the digital media analyst the needed information to recognize the gaming consoles deserve to prove to be of interest as well as the location of the digital artifacts, decipher their meaning, and also determine what can be extracted and its relevance to a case. Digital forensic analysts and high-tech crime investigators room well versed in the media evaluation of all the major operating systems, network devices, and also a totality host of little devices that space encountered top top a regular basis. Live online portal assists in a wide range of criminal activity. Finally, this chapter explores several of the criminal tasks that are occurred by the criminal facet that takes advantage of society network aspects of the online gaming portal referred to as XBOX Live. Governments are making use of this concept and associated software and hardware to administer training to their army members to much better pilot airplanes, resolve situations, and also train your soldiers in a safe environment. The information could be conveniently located online and also practiced in the online world, providing a hidden training facility to these small groups that can be overlooked.


People who flourished up using an individual computers, video game consoles, tablets, or cell phone phones have actually learned the various typical control gestures well sufficient that they have the right to execute them automatically, without thinking. No so with countless of today’s older adults, that encountered digital technology after attaining adulthood. Twin clicking, two-finger scrolling, pinching and spreading, click-drag, and other complicated gestures are brand-new and unfamiliar to them, and also so aren’t necessarily automatically .

*
as soon as text on mine iPad is too little to read, i tap 3 fingers twice to enlarge it. The took me a while come learn, and also even now I don’t always succeed top top the very first try.

John

Even older adult who regularly used computer systems during their working years sometimes have actually trouble with today’s more recent touch screen user interfaces: they often try to scroll down a page by swiping your finger downward, probably because they are acquainted with scrollbars on desktop computer systems, i beg your pardon do occupational that method (see number 7.6) . When a gesture because that achieving a certain an outcome is learned come the suggest where the has come to be an automatically “muscle memory,” it is daunting for people—especially larger adults—to unlearn the gesture and also learn a brand-new one .



The lack of standardization that gestures across applications and devices renders it daunting for world to transfer gestures learned in one application or maker to others. For example:

Scrolling is achieved with one-finger swipes on apple iPhone and also iPad touch screens, but with two-finger swipes on apple Mac laptop touch pads.

On desktop and laptop computers, a two-finger swipe zooms the map in Google Maps and also MapQuest, but everywhere rather on the screen, a two-finger swipe scrolls the content.

On desktop computer and laptop computers, one-finger and also two-finger swipes ~ above the trackpad have various effects. Top top smartphones and tablet computers they have actually the very same effect.


Such inconsistencies could not it is in the error of the creators of these systems. In many cases the inconsistencies room dictated by an essential differences in the platforms. Nonetheless, inconsistent gestures make it harder because that users—especially larger adults—to internalize the gestures as automatic “muscle memories.”


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Thomas W. Shinder, ... Debra Littlejohn Shinder, in home windows Server 2012 protection from end to Edge and also Beyond, 2013

Living in the world of Apps

The organic trend the apps all approximately tablets, smartphones, game consoles, and social networks is currently a truth on PCs and that is many thanks to home windows 8. The growing variety of apps available in different stores and also marketplaces likewise brings challenges around security. There are plenty of cybercriminals taking advantage of this way of commercializing applications to spread out malware come consumers. What starts on the consumer's machine can conveniently proliferate to an enterprise setting with this brand-new paradigm that BYOD (Bring your very own Device) and the embracement that this paradigm by huge corporations. For this reason, the is necessary to it is in diligent when taking care of application advancement and monitoring in the enterprise. Developers must be using the Microsoft Security advancement Lifecycle1 principles to improve the as whole protection that the application by thinking around security native the conception the the project and also through that is maintenance.

Despite every the initiatives to make windows 8 the most secure OS that Microsoft ever released, there are still concerns regarding the app platform. Some specialists space comparing the Windows app Security to Android Apps security.2 as a protection Professional, your function is to evangelize come the developers on how to make their apps much more secure and evangelize come the customers on exactly how to securely interact with 3rd party apps the were downloaded from the marketplace. Windows 8 comes with built-in features that will assist the end user in identifying a rogue applications as we defined in Chapter 8 when discussing the windows SmartProtection.


For a developer or an that PRO, the is an extremely important to recognize the most common assault surfaces in windows system. This is the only method you have the right to understand the communication networks that you should protect. The main ones are

RPC endpoints

Network endpoints

ActiveX parsers

DCOM objects

LPC endpoints

Protocol Handlers

Registry Keys

Kernel entry Points


Understanding the assault surface is the first step to boost your operation system and application security.

Windows app Store Security

Developers that focus on building Windows keep apps should likewise understand the platform security capabilities in order to far better leverage its sources while developing their application. Because that example, Windows store apps3 cannot usage interprocess interaction (IPC) calls to interact with any procedure outside the AppContainer (we will certainly talk about AppContainer in an ext detail later on in this chapter). IPC is only allowed between procedures that are component of the same AppContainer.


The same isolation is additionally true for windows Store application data storage, i m sorry is something very important to protect against data leakage. The accessibility to the data storage is restricted by default and it is only enabled if the user explicitly grants access to it. Through default, the Windows keep apps have accessibility only to regional settings and storage in the following locations (under Windows::Storage::ApplicationData::Current):

LocalSettings

LocalFolder

TemporaryFolder

RoamingSettings

RoamingFolder


Isolation is likewise present indigenous a network standpoint by no allowing access to the network uneven it is clearly granted. The access levels are shown in Table 10.1:


Table 10.1. Protection Levels


LevelDescriptionApplicability
Internet (Client)Allows outbound accessibility to Internet and public networks through firewallsUsually the preferred technique for most or every apps
Internet (Client & Server)Allows outbound and also inbound access to Internet and public networks v firewallsUsually provided by peer-to-peer (P2P) apps
Private Networks (Client & Server)Allows outbound and inbound accessibility to home and work networks v firewallsUsually provided by games that need interaction within the LAN

Steven Bolt, in XBOX 360 Forensics, 2011

Summary

A good deal that information has been spanned within this chapter. Game consoles have progressed to the point where on a network lock are identical from an individual computers. The functionality mirrors the features that are available to an end user on any type of other network device, with net surfing and also social networking accessible at the touch the a couple of buttons. In order because that these functions to it is in taken benefit of the XBOX 360, a user need to pay for their subscription, which can be accomplished through a prepaid map or by start a credit transaction card number. This number or password does not appear to it is in resident on the digital warehouse media that is required for a user to be networked end the console. Once the user is connected with the Live organization with a yellow account, castle can attach to your friends through a stripped version of the number one social networking site, Facebook. To connect to Facebook, the user need to accept a download that populates the journey with many artifacts. As the end user navigates with the facebook portal end the console, several artifacts get populated to the digital warehouse media. The format of this files appears to be a standard format and provides a potential list of the facebook friends that may have actually been linked while the console remained in use.


João M.P. Cardoso, ... Pedro C. Diniz, in Embedded computing for High Performance, 2017

1.1 Overview

Embedded computer systems permeate our resides from consumer devices, such together smartphones and also game consoles, to much less visible electronic tools that control, for instance, different aspects of a car's operation. Applications executing on existing embedded solution exhibit a sophistication top top par v applications running on desktop computers. In particular, mobile devices now assistance computationally intensive applications, and also the tendency points come a more increase in application intricacy to satisfy the cultivation expectations of your users. In addition to power requirements, energy and power intake are of paramount prominence for embedded applications, imposing limitations on exactly how applications room developed and also which algorithms have the right to be used.


Fig. 1.1 presents a generic and also simplified architecture of an embedded computing system. A crucial distinguishing function of an embedded system lies in the diversity that its input and output devices, generically known as sensors and actuators, fueled by the have to customize their usage for each certain domain. In this diagram, we have a bus-based computer core mechanism consisting the a RAM, ROM, and a processor unit. The computer core device interacts with its physical environment via a collection of actuators and also sensors using Analog-to-Digital (ADC) and Digital-to-Analog (DAC) converter units. In ~ the software level, the operation system and application software application are save in ROM or in flash memory, possibly running a customized variation of the Linux operating device able come satisfy specific memory and/or real-time needs <1> and can support additional software components, such together resident monitors, required by the installed system.



Developing applications in heavily constrained environments, i m sorry are common targets of embedded applications, requires significant programming skills. Not just programmers need to understand the constraints of the basic hardware and accompanying runtime support, yet they must additionally develop remedies able to satisfy stringent nonfunctional requirements, such together performance. Arising these interdisciplinary skills is nontrivial and also not surprisingly over there is a absence of textbooks addressing the breakthrough of the appropriate competences. These aptitudes are compelled when developing and mapping high-performance applications come current and emerging embedded computing systems. We think that this textbook is a step in this direction.



Ethernet relationships (at least the usual ones friend are most likely to encounter) are never ever looped with from one device to another. Regardless of the make the efforts of some home installers to download loop-through connections, the doesn't work. Loop-through means that the exact same wire pairs are run from one outlet come another, ~ originating at a hub. Expect you have a loop-through link as shown on the game console in the figure. If the game console (or computer system or whatever) is placed at the end of the loop-through, it will certainly work. However if that is inserted at the very first point, as shown, the cable from there to the end of the loop-through will act as an unterminated stub and also will reflect pulses, disrupting the power of the link. Us have found that in part cases, terminating the finish connection allude will permit the system to work, however this is only an emergency solution, no a recommendation.

It is true that one Ethernet connection will listen for rather transmitting prior to it transmits, but physically what wake up is the there is a main hub that have the right to echo signals entering one harbor to all various other ports. The hub might perform other attributes as well. A hub is a common connection point for tools in a network. Hubs are typically used to affix segments the a LAN, as presented in figure 5.12. Once a packet arrives at one port, the is copied to the other ports so the all segment of the LAN deserve to see every packets.

A switch, or sometimes switching hub, is a bit more intelligent. It filters and forwards packets in between LAN segments. Each DTE is assigned a distinct identification called a MAC address, explained later. A move learns the MAC attend to of every DTE linked to it; as soon as it gets a packet through that MAC destination address, it forwards the packet only to the proper port. The switch learns the MAC address of every DTE by listening to what come in on that port. Each transmission contains a destination MAC resolve and a resource MAC address. The move listens to the resource addresses to find out what is on every port. This generally suffices to permit the move to know how to route any kind of packet that receives.

However, sometimes a packet will certainly arrive v a location MAC resolve the switch doesn't recognize. In that case, the switch will certainly replicate the packet on all ports, simply as a hub would certainly do. Once the correct port (if any) obtain the packet and sends an acknowledgment, the move will find out the correct port for the MAC address.

A router is a yet more intelligent maker that can operate in ~ layer 3 as well as layer 2. It often is placed in between two LANs or in between a LAN and a WAN. We shall cover their features in more detail later.

A gateway is a router supplied to affix two or much more networks, as displayed in figure 5.12. That may have actually a number of higher-layer services, which will be explained below.

A bridge is a low-end gateway the interconnects 2 LANs or two segments of the very same LAN.

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The discussion of aesthetic computing and the translate of it via embodied official language would be incomplete without recommendation to video clip and console game cultures. An example is illustrative: logic circuits in the video game Minecraft (2011). Minecraft is a “block game” whereby players move roughly a space and build blocks using a mining metaphor. Some of the procedural capabilities within the video game have engaged members of the ar to create straightforward circuits, leading up to full-fledged computers out of the reasonable circuitry. Because Minecraft is very interactive, and also invokes a feeling of existence to boot, this form of hacking is continual with the concepts in aesthetic computing: players space working with each other to kind circuits v embodied interaction. Fig. 21.8 shows a Minecraft arithmetic logic unit (ALU) defined by Ganapati (2010).