ml>Voyevodins" Library _ "International Business: Competing in the Global Marketplace" / Charles W.L. Hill ... Chapter 12 ... legal risk, legal device, Leontief paradox, letter of crmodify, licensing, neighborhood content necessity, place economies, location-particular advantages, logistics, Maastricht Treaty, maker, managed-float mechanism, management netfunctions, sector economic situation, sector imperfections, market machines, market power, sector segmentation, marketing mix, masculinity versus femininity, mass customization, materials management, mercantilism, MERCOSUR, minimum efficient scale, MITI, blended economy, money monitoring, Moore"s Law, moral risk, mores, multiresidential strategy, Multilateral Commitment on Investment (MAI), multilateral netting, multinationwide enterpclimb (MNE), multisuggest competition, multipoint pricing, brand-new trade concept, nonconvertible currency, standards, North American Free Trade Commitment (NAFTA), oligopoly, Organization for Economic Coprocedure and also Growth (OECD), outflows of FDI, output controls, Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial PropertyVoevodin"s Library: legal danger, legal mechanism, Leontief paradox, letter of credit, licensing, local content necessity, area economies, location-specific advantages, logistics, Maastricht Treaty, maker, managed-float mechanism, administration networks, industry economy, sector imperfections, market devices, market power, market segmentation, marketing mix, masculinity versus femininity, mass customization, products monitoring, mercantilism, MERCOSUR, minimum efficient range, MITI, blended economic climate, money management, Moore"s Law, moral risk, mores, multiresidential strategy, Multilateral Commitment on Investment (MAI), multilateral netting, multinationwide enterprise (MNE), multisuggest competition, multipoint pricing, new profession theory, nonconvertible money, norms, North American Free Trade Commitment (NAFTA), oligopoly, Organization for Economic Coprocedure and Growth (OECD), outflows of FDI, output controls, Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property



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Chapter 12 Outline

Pressures for Cost Reductions and also Local Responsiveness Firms that contend in the international marketlocation frequently challenge two forms of competitive press. They confront pressures for cost reductions and also pressures to be locally responsive (check out Figure 12.3). These competitive pressures location conflicting demands on a firm. Responding to pressures to reduce prices requires that a firm attempt to minimize its unit costs. Attaining such a goal may necessitate that a firm base its productive activities at the many favorable low-price place, wherever before in the world that might be. It might likewise necessitate that a firm offer a standardized product to the worldwide marketplace to ride dvery own the experience curve as easily as possible. In comparison, responding to pressures to be locally responsive requires that a firm identify its product providing and also marketing strategy from country to country in an attempt to accommoday the varied demands that aclimb from national differences in customer tastes and also choices, business practices, distribution channels, competitive conditions, and federal government policies. Due to the fact that customizing product offerings to various national Figure 12.3 Pressures for Cost reduction and Local Responsiveness

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requirements deserve to involve considerable duplication and a lack of product standardization, the outcome may be to raise costs. While some firms, such as Firm A in Figure 12.3, face high pressures for price reductions and low pressures for neighborhood responsiveness, and others, such as Firm B, face low pressures for price reductions and high pressures for neighborhood responsiveness, many type of firms are in the place of Firm C. They confront high pressures for expense reductions and also high pressures for neighborhood responsiveness. Dealing with these conflicting and contradictory pressures is a daunting strategic difficulty for a firm, generally bereason being locally responsive tends to raise expenses. In the remainder of this section, we will certainly look at the source of pressures for expense reductions and also regional responsiveness. In the following section, we look at the strategies firms take on to resolve these pressures. Pressures for Cost Reductions Increasingly, worldwide businesses face pressures for price reductions. This requires a firm to attempt to lower the expenses of worth development by mass producing a standardized product at the optimal area in the people to try to realize place and also experience curve economic situations. Pressures for expense reductions deserve to be particularly intense in markets producing commodity assets where coherent differentiation on nonprice determinants is tough and also price is the primary competitive weapon. This has a tendency to be the situation for commodities that serve global needs. Universal needs exist when the tastes and preferences of consumers in different nations are comparable. This is the situation for standard commodity commodities such as bulk chemicals, petroleum, steel, sugar, and also the like. It also has a tendency to be the situation for many type of commercial and customer commodities (for example, handheld calculators, semiconductor chips, individual computer systems, liquid crystal display screens). Pressures for cost reductions are additionally intense in sectors where major rivals are based in low-cost locations, where tright here is persistent excess capacity, and also wright here consumers are effective and also confront low switching expenses. Many kind of commentators have actually also said that the liberalization of the world profession and also investment environment in recent years, by facilitating greater international competition, has actually mainly boosted cost pressures.14 Cost pressures have been intense in the global tire industry in recent years. Tires are basically a commodity product wbelow coherent differentiation is difficult and also price is the primary competitive weapon. The major buyers of tires, car firms, are powerful and also confront low switching prices, so they play tire firms versus each other to obtain reduced prices. And the decrease in global demand for automobiles in the early on 1990s developed excess capacity in the tire industry, via as much as 25 percent of human being capacity standing idle. The result was an international price war with practically all tire firms experiencing hefty losses in the beforehand 1990s. In response to the resulting price pressures, the majority of tire firms are trying to achieve a low-expense place. This contains relocating manufacturing facilities to low-expense facilities and also providing globally standardized assets to realize suffer curve economies.15 Pressures for Local Responsiveness Pressures for regional responsiveness aincrease from a number of sources consisting of (a) distinctions in customer tastes and also preferences, (b) distinctions in infrastructure and standard practices, (c) distinctions in circulation networks, and also (d) host federal government needs. Differences in Consumer Tastes and also Preferences Strong pressures for neighborhood responsiveness emerge once customer tastes and choices differ substantially in between countries--as they may for historical or cultural reasons. In such situations, product and/or marketing messages need to be customized to appeal to the tastes and choices of neighborhood consumers. This generally prompts delegating production and marketing functions to nationwide subsidiaries. For instance, tbelow is a solid demand also among North Amerihave the right to consumers for pickup trucks, particularly in the South and West wbelow many type of family members have a pickup truck as a second or 3rd automobile. In contrast, in European nations, pickup trucks are seen pucount as utility vehicles and are purchased mainly by firms fairly than people. As an effect, the marketing message demands to be tailored to the different nature of demand in The United States and Canada and also Europe. But Harvard Business School Professor Theodore Levitt has actually argued that customer demands for regional customization are declining global.16 According to Levitt, contemporary communications and also transport modern technologies have created the conditions for a convergence of the tastes of consumers from various countries. The result is the emergence of huge global markets for standardized consumer assets. Levitt cites global acceptance of McDonald"s hamburgers, Coca-Cola, Levi Strauss jeans, and Sony tv sets, every one of which are offered as standardized commodities, as proof of the raising homogeneity of the international marketlocation. Levitt"s discussion, however, has been identified as excessive by many commentators. For instance, Christopher Bartlett and also Sumantra Ghoshal have oboffered that in the consumer electronics sector, consumers reacted to an overdose of standardized international commodities by mirroring a renewed preference for products that are identified to neighborhood problems.17 They note that Amstrad, the fast-growing British computer and electronics firm, gained its begin by recognizing and responding to neighborhood consumer requirements. Amstrad captured a major share of the British audio player sector by relocating amethod from the standardized, inexpensive stereo devices marketed by international firms such as Sony and Matsushita. Amstrad"s product is encased in teak quite than steel and also has a regulate panel tailor-made to appeal to British consumers" preferences. In response, Matsushita had actually to reverse its earlier prejudice towards standardized global design and area more focus on neighborhood customization. Differences in Infraframework and also Traditional Practices Pressures for local responsiveness emerge as soon as tbelow are differences in facilities and/or traditional methods in between nations. In such circumstances, personalizing the product to the distinctive infra-structure and also methods of various countries might necessitate delegating manufacturing and also production functions to international subsidiaries. For instance, North American consumer electrical systems are based upon 110 volts, while in some European countries, 240 volt systems are traditional. Thus, residential electric appliances need to be customized for this distinction in facilities. Classic practices likewise regularly differ across countries. For instance, human being drive on the left side of the road in Britain, producing a demand for right-hand drive cars, however in neighboring France, world drive on the right side of the road, producing a demand also for left-hand also drive cars. Automobiles have to be customized to fulfill this difference in typical methods. Differences in Distribution Channels A firm"s marketing tactics might have to be responsive to distinctions in circulation channels between nations. This may necessitate the delegation of marketing attributes to national subsidiaries. In laundry detergents, for instance, 5 retail chains control 65 percent of the sector in Germany type of, but no chain controls even more than 2 percent of the market in surrounding Italy. Thus, retail chains have substantial buying power in Germany kind of, however reasonably little bit in Italy. Dealing with these differences calls for detergent firms to use varying marketing ideologies. In the pharmaceutical sector, the British and also Japanese circulation units are radically different from the US system. British and Japanese medical professionals will certainly not accept or respond favorably to an American-style high push sales pressure. Therefore, pharmaceutical firms need to adopt different marketing practices in Britain and also Japan compared to the United States (soft offer versus hard sell). Host Government Demands Economic and also political needs implemented by host-country federal governments may necessitate neighborhood responsiveness. For instance, the politics of wellness treatment about the human being requires that pharmaceutical firms manufacture in multiple places. Pharmaceutical firms are topic to regional clinical testing, registration procedures, and also pricing limitations, every one of which demand that the manufacturing and marketing of a drug meet local needs. Also, bereason governments and federal government agencies regulate a far-ranging percentage of the wellness treatment budacquire in the majority of nations, they deserve to demand a high level of neighborhood responsiveness. Threats of protectionism, economic nationalism, and also local content rules (which require that a particular percent of a product be produced locally) all dictate that worldwide businesses manufacture locally. Consider Bombardier, the Canadian-based manufacturer of railcars, aircraft, jet boats, and snowmobiles. Bombardier has 12 railvehicle factories across Europe. Some argue that the duplication of manufacturing infrastructure leads to high costs and lowers profit margins, however Bombardier managers say that informal rules in Europe favor suppliers that use local workers. To offer railcars in Germany, they case, you need to manufacture in Germany. The same goes for Belgium, Austria, and also France. To attend to its price structure in Europe, Bombardier has actually central its design and purchasing attributes, yet it has no plans to centralize manufacturing.18 Implications Pressures for neighborhood responsiveness imply that it may not be feasible for a firm to realize the full benefits from suffer curve and also area economic climates. For example, it may not be feasible to serve the global marketplace from a single low-cost area, developing a worldwide standardized product and also marketing it global to accomplish experience curve expense economic climates. The have to customize the product to local problems might occupational against such a strategy. Automobile firms, for example, have uncovered that Japanese, American, and European consumers demand various kinds of cars, and this necessitates creating products that are customized for regional markets. In response, firms such as Honda, Ford, and Toyota are establishing height to bottom design and also manufacturing framework in each of these areas so they deserve to much better serve regional demands. While such customization brings benefits, it also boundaries a firm"s capacity to realize considerable endure curve economic situations and also location economic situations. In addition, pressures for local responsiveness suggest that it may not be feasible to deliver the skills and also products linked through a firm"s core competencies totality sale from one country to one more. Concessions regularly need to be made to local conditions. Regardless of being depicted as "poster boy" for the proliferation of standardized international products, also McDonald"s has customized its product (i.e., its menu) to account for national differences in tastes and also choices (watch the Management Focus for details).