This essay explores cosmopolitanism during the nineteenth century, not just as a ide intertwined v the nation-state, yet rather together an endure shaped by common perceptions that the world and shared views of modernity. It discusses the potential that the principle of a cosmopolitan social network throughout the nineteenth century, within and beyond Europe, to command music historiography and critique away from a emphasis on worries of national identity and nationalistic music aesthetics. It says that cosmopolitans native the spare part of Europe broadened on european musics’ plenty of aesthetic possibilities, while they problematized boundaries between local and also universal, between originals and also copies, in between margins and also centers, and also ultimately in between the European and also the non-European.
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Keywords: cosmopolitanism, Europe, nineteenth century, nationalism, identity, aesthetics, modernity, music historiography, Enlightenment, Alberto Nepomuceno
The proprietor of share is more than likely a citizens of the world and also is not necessarily attached to any certain country.
—Adam Smith, The wealth of countries (1776)
When vapor power will be perfected, when, along with telegraphy and railways, the will have actually made ranges disappear, it will not only be assets which travel, but additionally ideas i m sorry will have wings; when various countries, in day-to-day relations, often tend towards the unit of peoples, how will you have the ability to revive the old mode of separation?
—Francois-Rene de Chateaubriand, Mémoires d’autre-tombe (1841)
Some case that the human being is gradually ending up being united, that it will grow into a brotherly ar as distances shrink and also ideas room transmitted v the air. Alas, you must not believe that men deserve to be joined in this way.
—Fyodor Dostoevsky, The brother Karamazov (1880)
Exploring Cosmopolitanism in the Nineteenth Century
As a ide of world politics and also human rights, cosmopolitanism has a background going earlier to the Greek Stoics, who envisioned the cosmopolitan as a “citizen that the world,” cost-free to cross borders and also with aspirations toward common morals and also legal rights. This cosmopolitan right became an important in the shaping the European knowledge thought throughout the eighteenth century, offer to assistance Immanuel Kant’s contact for free republics the together might sustain global peace, and Johann Gottfried Herder’s acknowledgment of the world’s cultural plurality.1 enlightenment cosmopolitanism, v its utopian notions of global freedom and also commitment to person hospitality, endured through the nineteenth century, yet eventually was placed to the test together the introduction of the nation-state and the expanding forces of an international capitalism led to brand-new sociopolitical models and also philosophical ideals. Still, enlightenment cosmopolitanism, and its relationships and tensions v the nation-state and the national politics of nationalism, became an essential part of nineteenth-century europe’s intellectual and also political understanding of itself and its function in a human being increasingly associated by global trade; scientific and technical advances; faster communications and also travel; and the circulation that information, ideas, and social goods. As Gerard Delanty notes, one should take into consideration the pressures of both cosmopolitanism and also nationalism as important parts that “the paradox that modernity,” a paradox that survived the lengthy nineteenth century and that persists to today disguised in the rhetoric of local/global dualities.2
In recent decades the ide of cosmopolitanism has actually been restored as a promising device in the exploration and theorizing that the socioeconomic, political, and social aspects of our modern world. Construed as a an outcome of assorted globalizing processes and broadly identified as “a willingness to connect with the Other” and “an ability to navigate various social contexts,”3 cosmopolitanism did no make a comeback without receiving its share of criticism. Scholars were quick to point out that such broad definitions show cosmopolitans’ paradoxical inclination toward difference and highlight how evocations of cosmopolitanism deserve to conceal rather than reject or get over sociocultural hierarchies.4 however while specifying cosmopolitanism continues to be a challenged issue, the return the the principle to the social sciences has actually inspired novel researches that transcend understandings of culture as static and also locally bound, challenge tropes of identity in their uncomplicated associations with person behavior, and contemplate ideals of universality in a new light. In a brand-new humanistic guise, cosmopolitanism has actually been touted as “the idea that all human being beings, nevertheless of their political affiliation, execute (or at the very least can) belong come a solitary community, and also that this community should it is in cultivated.”5 This neighborhood has been explored in various ways, it is in they politics institutions, moral norms, or common markets, as well as forms of social and creative expressions; the latter educate my use of the ax cosmopolitanism in this article.
The “new” cosmopolitanism has actually enabled critical reflections on the limiting views of society as constructed historically and also politically in unequivocal and autonomous relationships to neighborhood groups, localized communities, and/or nation-states, and has questioned social bonds assumed come be current by naturalized relationships resulting from citizenship or location of birth. Jeremy Waldron points the end that one’s “culture” cannot be understood in the very same light as one’s “identity” as it is enunciated through one’s sex or one’s race. Rather, culture should be considered a negotiable process of engagement and also of disengagement come one’s neighborhood social structure and also order, a process that is always open to new modes the interaction and negotiation. Waldron calls right into question some of the self-conscious posturing often associated with nationhood and also points come a cosmopolitan appropriate in i m sorry “shared methods of life execute not must be minimal to a geographical area (although they have the right to be), yet are shame by society practices, feeling of exclusion and belonging occurred over time, and also many other feelings that pertain to human being experiences and their understandings of the world.”6 Assuming the an uncontaminated single society is in reality an anomaly, Waldron further notes that “one culture does not have to be plainly and importantly various from another, one of two people in that is appearance come an outsider or in the awareness of that practitioners, in order to it is in the society that it is.” Consequentially, for the cultural analyst what should count “is not cultural distinctiveness … yet similarities and also patterns the integration, in history constructed and shared among spaces.” Cosmopolitanism have the right to thus be understood as a flexible procedure of engagement that cannot coexist v historicized and politicized notions of homogeneous, naturalized, and static individual or collective social identities.7
Waldron’s view of cosmopolitanism as negotiated, mutual spaces of social belonging have the right to assist united state in rethinking some of the main tenets of music scholarship, both in the musicological and ethnomusicological domains, inasmuch together they space constructed, directly or indirectly, on the basis of nation/culture correlations. Specifics the ide of cosmopolitanism as common spaces have the right to offer new insights into the disciplinary rigor that music authorship and cultural ownership and, most important, permits for a critique that social definition and aesthetic values that rests on presumptions of uniqueness and also originality supposedly connected with locality, one’s nation, and one’s national identity. Cosmopolitanism have the right to lead united state to inquiries of just how music’s circulation in time and room has allowed for agency in the structure of and reflection ~ above shared social spaces, quite than ~ above music’s function to construct and delimit geographical and cultural boundaries; together such, that invites united state to examine modes of music expression and aesthetic values that space nonexclusive, flexible, and unlimited. The cosmopolitan lens leads united state to critical explorations and also the questioning of borders—of culture attachments, identities, and also aesthetic stances—to indicate that mutual spaces of cultural belonging allow for alternate thinking, imaginations past the local, and multifaced and also multidirectional artistic creativity.8
Exploring the cosmopolitan dimension of musical practices as a historic project poses several challenges, however. The first lies in the usual emphasis on cosmopolitanism together a modern-day phenomenon, top top “newness” as the key site because that analysis, and also the consequent expertise of past societies and cultural connections together static and also pure. But as scholars begin to delve into the historic dimensions of cosmopolitanism, tracing the concept earlier through millennia-old trends in religion, empire, trade, and mobility, it i do not care clear the it is precisely cosmopolitanism’s long background that renders it one attractive tool for social and musical analysis and interpretation. For cosmopolitanism gives its own historic critique and permits for explorations the both the limitations and its potential as a concept.9 One should keep in mind, however, that also if definitions and also uses of the hatchet cosmopolitanism can be compared throughout history, their historical processes space different. Human being in the nineteenth century enduring the cultivation power that nation-states, the various disputes within and also beyond Europe, the hunger for early american power, and the drastic transforms brought around by economic and cultural connections past the local might only speculate, positively or negatively, around the future. Lock did no live through the trauma of people wars and the numerous nationalistic agendas the erupted throughout the twentieth and also twenty-first centuries. Now one may be more accepting the cosmopolitanism together a device to reflect top top the country in positive, if rather utopian, ways. But when looked at as a historical experience and also practice, awareness the the potentials that cosmopolitanism as a sociopolitical tool and also as a social practice is less straightforward.
The second an obstacle involves exploring cosmopolitanism especially in the nineteenth century, because that the period has to be predominantly linked with the decreasing of knowledge cosmopolitanism and with a teleological account the the nation-state and also nationalism. The latter, cogently articulated by historian Friedrich Meinecke in 1907 in regard to intellectual and political believed in Germany, proceeds to pat a dominant role in twentieth-century music scholarship, which privileges nineteenth-century Europe, and Germany in particular, as a website for investigation of music’s function in articulating unique national musical cultures that eventually end up being historically meaningful and also aesthetically powerful.10 The challenge of contemplating cosmopolitanism amid together a nation-centric heat of assumed is heightened by the truth that music together a object of academic interest, both in the musicological and also ethnomusicological domains, arised in Europe exactly during the time that the strengthening of the nation-state and the farming power that German pundits in considering Europe as a design of the world. Together a result, music historiography abounds with the period’s own historic bias and also nation-centric filters, i beg your pardon privilege music’s role in representing the nation and enforcing miscellaneous strains of nationalisms, rather than music’s association with bigger “patterns of integration, historically constructed and also shared amongst spaces,” together Waldron suggests. Thus, draw close cosmopolitanism as a nineteenth-century experience and practice associated with europe music entails not only reconsidering the expertise of the duration solely as the “age the nationalism,” but also questioning established modes the investigation. It calls for a move from a “methodological nationalism” to a “methodological cosmopolitanism,” one epistemological turn that confronts the nationally centered ontology dominating scholarly investigations of music throughout the period.11
The third challenge lies in confronting cosmopolitanism’s uncosmopolitan roots, together a concept tied to universalist ideals and European-led globalization, colonialism, and imperialism.12 this tenets that cosmopolitanism, although rather in accord with enlightenment thought, have actually been countered by recent anthropological studies reflecting that cosmopolitan ideals are not, and never have actually been, a privilege the “Westerners” and that principles of universalism, both in its politics force and also a self-conscious identification, traverse various historical and social contexts.13 Considering the pervasiveness of cosmopolitan visions of humankind throughout history, Nikos Papastergiadis has detailed that “universalism is both a vital ideal and constantly contingent top top the details circumstances and also diverse needs through which the is articulated.”14 A context-based perception and openness to the ideals the universalism is thus an essential aspect of cosmopolitanism in its humanity guise. Walter Mignolo argues the ax “critical cosmopolitanism” to to mark cosmopolitanism as a historically and also context-based best that attributes as one evaluative mechanism, as a reflexive self-critique, and as a “creative alternative” within procedures of cross-cultural interactions.15 that is the reflective and an imaginative aspect that cosmopolitanism together a practice and an experience, and also its openness come context-based universality that, ns argue, mark its presence throughout the nineteenth-century and that need to be accounted because that in music historiography. This is an especially important since music, through its subjectivity and also openness come signification, was an important in the procedure of navigating the period’s new, multifaceted, and difficult perceptions of belonging to a civilization that quickly became larger 보다 one’s locality and also one’s national connections.
I do not desire to indicate that cosmopolitanism is a practice or an endure that originates from nowhere, or that it is a universalizing pressure that point out its visibility everywhere. Rather, my use of the term right here is dependency on the knowledge that cosmopolitan ideals surface ar in details sociohistorical problems that privilege details places and times. Together such, scholars have actually rightly mentioned the need to pay fist to the plurality the the concept, as cosmopolitanisms. During the nineteenth century, European cities were centers the the music publishing business and also the website of coveted opera theaters, concert halls, music halls, and also café concerts. They central music production and, many important, had actually the financial and also political strength to circulate music in markets across borders and oceans. Thus, addressing cosmopolitanism together an endure originating in Europe during an er of heightened nationalism, imperialism, and commercial development unavoidably leader to issues of power relationships, which are apparent in the flow of music into and also out of certain urban hubs in Europe. At the same time, the musical practices associated with Europe, once outside their place of origin, could no longer be limited to or conditioned by their sociopolitical and geographical beginnings or to cultural narratives of national belonging; rather, they ended up being independently systematic to large numbers of human being in assorted places. Within that context, cosmopolitanism should be understood not just as a process in i beg your pardon musical manufacturing becomes a leading identity procession that traveled beyond the local, but likewise as a an essential reflection ~ above music’s intrinsic relationship to the local and the nation, together a critique of the very notion of europe musics’ centrality.
I believe that the nineteenth century deserve to be of particular interest together a historic site for investigations ~ above cosmopolitan cultural and musical experiences and practices, due to the fact that the period is defined by unprecedented commercial, technological, social, and social “frantic interconnections,” to use Ledger and also Luckhusrt’s expression,16 interconnections that escalated exponentially throughout the century, both in pace and in scope. Follow to Kristin Hoganson, the growth of a global market in between 1880 and also 1914 and the resulting circulation of customer and social goods, coupled with the intensity and also rapid pace of social, political, and cultural exchanges, proved “an unprecedented level the sophistication in transnational explorations” the rivaled late twentieth-century experience of globalization, with similar patterns of social exchanges and also ramifications in social production, experiences, and relationships. Together such, knowledge the expansion of nineteenth-century cosmopolitan experiences—experiences past local and also national borders—can sell a historic grounding through which one have the right to juxtapose our present.17
Most important, the emphasis on cosmopolitanism allows us to address the nineteenth century not as a static, nation-centric century, but as a duration when national borders, gift shaped and constantly disputed, tested traditional forms of belonging. In fact, scholars have shown that throughout the nineteenth century it to be a challenge, rather than a given, for nation builders to build national sentiments.18 One have the right to say that what characterizes the period was specifically the need to understand, confront, and also ultimately control brand-new political, social, and cultural relations result from the resolution of long-standing, oligarchic equipment of production and also power and also of spiritual conceptions the the world. And also considering that cosmopolitan experiences have actually been an especially prevalent in durations of expansion and after the autumn of empires, or “when states break increase or new unions are formed,”19 the nineteenth century can carry out us v vivid instances of the difficulties in comprehending the really notion of society and identity and also the struggles to grasp the vulnerability of boundaries.
A cosmopolitan experience shaped the century’s most an overwhelming and rousing feelings about the predicaments and ephemerality the progress, and also the contraction and also refashioning the time and an are made possible by brand-new technologies and media. It additionally entailed a gamut of possible aesthetic consciousness of the world, such as the limits between concepts that unity and diversity, in between the rational and also the illusory, in between the real and also social versus the ideal and reflective, between art and nonart, between the original and also the copy. These dualities were not proficient as static concepts, however as obstacles within a constantly changing and linked world. In 1890 François Mainguy wrote in Le fin de siècle: “No more rank, title, or race … every is mixed, confused, blurred, reshuffled, in a kaleidoscopic vision.”20 Cosmopolitanism highlights the vulnerability of this boundaries and also helps united state to i found it the plenty of layers that shared human being experiences that characterized the period’s kaleidoscopic vision.
One must go further, then, and also explore cosmopolitanism throughout the nineteenth century not just as a ide intertwined with the nation-state, or an identity that paralleled or opposed the politics of nationalism, but as one experience and a exercise that transcended utopian knowledge ideals. As the century progressed, Delanty point out out, cosmopolitanism provided “expression to a different dimension the belonging than that of nationalism,” one that offered “a critical and reflex consciousness”21 that the political, social, and cultural entanglements that modernity. Cosmopolitanism moved from philosophical ideas and also sociopolitical theory inherited native the knowledge thought to a enjoy on the practice of daily life, as “actually currently cosmopolitanism,” as some scholars have put it.22 It became a daily reality the increasingly included the lives of those living with the process of europe’s shaping the itself—of those participating in the process from within, and of those linked to the from past European borders. Cosmopolitanism emerged as a awareness of “being in the world” and also an endure of “feeling in the world” the foreshadowed difficulties and new possibilities, much an ext than it gift utopian see of a associated world. In its miscellaneous manifestations, cosmopolitanism ended up being a most pervasive awareness of the century, even if it is in the regards to commerce and forms of social currencies, together a tool to reflect on the possibilities of modern technology to transcend and reshape time and space, or together an expression of positive outlook for a bright civilization devoid of human disconnections. Cosmopolitanism can be manifested in the form of a romantic self-detachment from a potentially larger world past oneself, or as a critical tool disguised as aestheticism; it can be articulated as a gloomy presage of an uncertain future without ties to locality or together a way to critique decadent bohemian escapism. Both praised and also despised, together a awareness of being in the world and a reflection on the world, cosmopolitanism became essential come individuals’ understandings of and company in your own historic positions, enabling for imaginations beyond the local and the country to come to be a practical reality, within and well beyond European borders.
Cosmopolitanism likewise became associated with one urban ball of daily life, highlighting the role of the city in an overwhelming and escaping the tentacles the the nation, politically and culturally, together the subversive Other. Together Tanya Agatholous sharp out, cosmopolitan experiences and practices thrived in cities exactly because cities allowed for one aesthetic perception that tied worldwide perspectives come a localized, urban experience claiming to be unbound through nation-state ties.23 together European nineteenth-century cities thrived into complicated human conglomerates, they emerged as sites for exploring, critiquing, and imagining social encounters; together spaces for identity explorations and also escalating exoticisms; and also as places for showing on displacements, disconnections, and exclusions. Top top the one hand, the city detailed an experience of a people out of control, filled v rootless cosmopolitans. Top top the other, it offered promises the a shared an international imaginary, a an are in i beg your pardon to display screen the pressures of modernity as spectacles, come showcase nations and cultures in world exhibitions, and to reflect top top Self and Otherness. Victorian realist writers, Agathocleous notes, unapologetically discover London as a prototype of a “world-city,” together a “representative of mankind,” a location with “universal resonances,” whereby one would certainly “apprehend an international modernity,” both in its possibilities and also failures.24 early in his career, Wagner described Paris as “the center of the world, wherein the art of every nation stream with each other to one focus,”25 only to disparage Paris later on for the city’s capacity to enthrall a decadent bourgeoisie through no national commitments. Walter Benjamin described Paris not just as the funding of France, yet as the resources of the nineteenth century, together a city that encapsulated a temporal Geist that exuded modernity if exposing capitalism’s flaws.26 Paris and also London, the world’s biggest cities at midcentury, ended up being worldwide social commodities in themselves, for they emanated a cosmopolitan urban appropriate that was commonly exported and also that fancy the imaginations that millions of individuals living in cities much away.27
Connections past the local and the country unleashed a gamut of political, social, and social bonds amongst people from far-off places, fueling every little thing from anarchist causes and also antislavery movements to literature circles determined to detach us from the aesthetic master of nationalistic agendas.28 These relations were articulated by a an effective urban bourgeoisie, who ties were shaped by society (and racial and also gender) and ideological, rather than through national, attachments. However the city bourgeoisie was no a monolithic sociopolitical group, and also their an answer to cosmopolitanism to be not one of wholehearted engagement. They were endangered by the introduction of socialism on a an international scale and also felt vulnerable before ideals of progression that relegated the past to a mythical state and also overestimated the future in lieu of the present, bring about a sense of historical unpredictability, one angst the was manifested by expression of detachment: native the local, from the city, from the nation, and also from the possibilities that the universal.29 at the same time, markets, capitalism, and also imperialism resulted in a level of usage that allowed the appearance of cosmopolitans who never ever left home, cosmopolitans that were not component of a dominant bourgeoisie, and those who were displaced from their homes and did not fit the image of the “citizen the the world” who is uprooted together a preference. In the end, cosmopolitan experiences and practices encompassed an ext than privileged Europeans and also intellectual travelers attempting come make sense of their own cultural identity politics. Lock became component of the experiences of individuals and groups that, willingly or not, became linked to the political, commercial, and social expansions originating in Europe.
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Understood together a negotiated room of shared experiences and practices, the concept of cosmopolitanism has actually the potential to market a fresh, context-based, historic interpretation that a nineteenth-century, European-centered music manufacturing through its multiple flows past its locations of origin. But the focus on cosmopolitanism deserve to drive bolder ideas with effects that go beyond a mere ide of historiographical review. It highlights music’s subjectivity together a tool within a procedure of building cosmopolitan experiences and fueling a cosmopolitan “collective creativity.” together I suggest below, this cosmopolitan experience arised from the middle of various cultural flows throughout the nineteenth century in contexts that “emanated indigenous the middle of society consciousness”30 and were associated with mutual experiences of modernity, quite than specifically from a political view dictated through ideals of country building.