Learning Objectives

Understand some of the psychological pressures underlying human being behaviour.Identify levels of consciousness.Critically discuss various models and also theories that psychodynamic and also behavioural psychology.Understand the concept of psychological species and identify applications and also examples in everyday life.

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Sigmund Freud

The psychodynamic perspective in psychology proposes the there space psychological pressures underlying person behaviour, feelings, and also emotions. Psychodynamics originated v Sigmund Freud (Figure 2.5) in the so late 19th century, who said that psychological procedures are flows of psychological energy (libido) in a complicated brain. In an answer to the more reductionist strategy of biological, structural, and also functional psychology movements, the psychodynamic view marks a pendulum swing earlier toward much more holistic, systemic, and also abstract concepts and also their affect on the more concrete behaviours and also actions. Freud’s theory of psychoanalysis presume that much of mental life is unconscious, and that previous experiences, especially in early on childhood, shape exactly how a human feels and behaves throughout life.

Figure 2.5 team Photo. Front heat (left come right): Sigmund Freud, G. Stanley Hall, Carl Jung; back row (left come right): Abraham A. Brill, Ernest Jones, Sándor Ferenczi.

Consciousness is the awareness of the me in room and time. It can be characterized as person awareness the both internal and external stimuli. Researcher study states of person consciousness and also differences in perception in order come understand how the body functions to produce aware awareness. Consciousness varies in both arousal and also content, and also there are two types of mindful experience: phenomenal, or in the moment, and access, which recalls experiences from memory.

First appearing in the historic records that the ancient Mayan and also Incan civilizations, various theories the multiple level of consciousness have pervaded spiritual, psychological, medical, and moral speculations in both Eastern and also Western cultures. The old Mayans were among the first to propose an organized sense of every level that consciousness, its purpose, and its temporal link to humankind. Since consciousness incorporates stimuli indigenous the environment and also internal stimuli, the Mayans thought it to be the many basic type of existence, qualified of evolution. The Incas, however, considered consciousness to be a progression, not only of awareness however of problem for others as well.

Sigmund Freud split human consciousness right into three level of awareness: the conscious, preconscious, and also unconscious. Each of these levels synchronizes to and overlaps v Freud’s ideas of the id, ego, and also superego. The conscious level consists of all those things we are mindful of, consisting of things that we know around ourselves and also our surroundings. The preconscious consists of those things we could pay aware attention to if us so desired, and also where plenty of memories room stored for basic retrieval. Freud observed the preconscious together those think that room unconscious in ~ the details moment in question, but that are not repressed and are therefore accessible for recall and easily capable of coming to be conscious (e.g., the “tip of the tongue” effect). The unconscious consists of those things that are outside of aware awareness, including numerous memories, thoughts, and also urges of i m sorry we room not aware. lot of what is stored in the unconscious is believed to be unpleasant or conflicting; because that example, sex-related impulses the are considered “unacceptable.” if these facets are stored out of our awareness, they are nevertheless thought to influence our behaviour.

Figure 2.6 The level of Consciousness.

Figure 2.6 illustrates the respective levels of id, ego, and also superego. In this diagram, the bright blue line represents the divide in between consciousness (above) and also unconsciousness (below). Listed below this line, but over the id, is the preconscious level. The lowest segment is the unconscious. Favor the ego, the superego has actually conscious and unconscious elements, while the id is completely unconscious. Once all three components of the personality space in dynamic equilibrium, the individual is thought to it is in mentally healthy. But if the ego is can not to mediate between the id and the superego, one imbalance wake up in the type of psychological distress.

While Freud’s concept remains one of the best known, miscellaneous schools within the field of psychology have emerged their own perspectives. Because that example:

Developmental psychologists check out consciousness not as a single entity, yet as a developmental process with potential higher stages the cognitive, moral, and spiritual quality.Social psychologists view consciousness together a product of cultural influence having tiny to perform with the individual.Neuropsychologists see consciousness as ingrained in neural systems and organic brain structures.Cognitive psychologists base their expertise of awareness on computer system science.

Most psychodynamic philosophies use talk therapy, or psychoanalysis, to study maladaptive attributes that arisen early in life and are, at the very least in part, unconscious. Psychoanalysis is a type of analysis that involves attempting to influence behavioural change through having patients talk about their difficulties. Practising psychoanalysts now collect their data in lot the same means as Freud did, through case studies, yet often there is no the couch. The analyst listens and also observes, gathering information around the patient. Psychoanalytic scientists today also collect data in formal activities experiments, studying groups of people in much more restricted, managed ways (Cramer, 2000; Westen, 1998).

Carl Jung

Carl Jung (1875-1961) increased on Freud’s theories, introducing the concepts of the archetype, the collective unconscious, and individuation — or the psychological procedure of complete the opposites, including the aware with the unconscious, while still preserving their loved one autonomy (Figure 2.7). Jung focused less ~ above infantile development and conflict between the id and superego, and more on integration between different parts of the person.

Figure 2.7 Jung’s Theory.

The complying with are Jung’s concepts that room still widespread today:

Active imagination: This describes activating our imaginal procedures in waking life in order come tap into the unconscious interpretations of our symbols.

Archetypes: these primordial pictures reflect an easy patterns or global themes usual to us all and also that are present in the unconscious. This symbolic pictures exist outside room and time. Instances are the shadow, animus, anima, the old way person, and also the chaste child. Over there are also nature archetypes, choose fire, ocean, river, mountain.

Anima is the archetype symbolizing the unconscious female component of the male psyche. Tendencies or characteristics often believed of as feminine.Animus is the archetype symbolizing the unconscious male component the the woman psyche. Tendencies or qualities often believed of together masculine.Self is the archetype symbolizing the totality the the personality. It represents the striving for unity, wholeness, and integration.Persona is the mask or image a person presents come the world. It is draft to do a details impression on others, while concealing a person’s true nature.Shadow is the side that a personality the a person does not consciously display screen in public. The may have positive or an unfavorable qualities.Dreams are specific expressions of the unconscious that have a definite, purposeful framework indicating an underlying idea or intention. The general function of dreams is to regain a person’s total psychic equilibrium.Complexes are typically unconscious and repressed emotionally toned symbolic material that is incompatible v consciousness. Complexes can cause constant psychological disturbances and also symptoms that neurosis. V intervention, lock can come to be conscious and also greatly decreased in their impact.

Individuation: Jung believed that a human being being is inwardly whole, however that most people have lost touch with necessary parts that themselves. V listening come the message of our dreams and also waking imagination, we can contact and also reintegrate our various parts. The score of life is individuation, i m sorry is the procedure of complete the mindful with the unconscious, synergizing the many components of the psyche. Jung asserted: “Trust the which provides you an interpretation and expropriate it together your guide” (Jung, 1951, p. 3). Each human being has a specific nature and also calling uniquely his or she own, and unless these space fulfilled v a union of conscious and unconscious, the human being can become sick. Today, the hatchet “individuation” is provided in the media industry to describe brand-new printing and also online technologies that allow “mass customization” the media (newspaper, online, television) so the its contents enhance each individual user’s distinct interests, shifting from the fixed media practice of creating the same materials for every readers, viewers, listeners, or online users (Chen, Wang, & Tseng, 2009). Marshall McLuhan, the interactions theorist, alluded to this tendency in customization when pointing out the future the printed publications in one electronically interconnected people (McLuhan & Nevitt, 1972).

Mandala: For Jung, the mandala (which is the Sanskrit word for “circle”) was a symbol the wholeness, completeness, and also perfection, and symbolized the self.

Mystery: because that Jung, life to be a good mystery, and he thought that humans know and understand very small of it. He never ever hesitated to say, “I don’t know,” and also he constantly admitted once he involved the end of his understanding.

Neurosis: Jung had actually a hunch the what passed because that normality often was the an extremely force the shattered the personality the the patient. He proposed that trying to it is in “normal” violates a person’s inner nature and also is chin a form of pathology. In the psychiatric hospital, he wonder why psychiatrists were no interested in what their patients had to say.

Story: Jung concluded that every person has actually a story, and also when derangement occurs, the is because the an individual story has been denied or rejected. Healing and integration come as soon as the human discovers or rediscovers his or she own personal story.

Symbol: A price is a name, term, or photo that is familiar in daily life, but for Jung it had various other connotations besides its conventional and obvious meaning. Come Jung, a price implied other vague and partially unknown or hidden, and was never specifically defined. Dream symbols lugged messages from the unconscious come the reasonable mind.

Unconscious: This straightforward tenet, together expressed by Jung, states that all commodities of the unconscious space symbolic and can it is in taken together guiding messages. In ~ this concept, there are two types:

Personal unconscious: This element of the psyche does no usually get in an individual’s awareness, but, instead, appears in overt behaviour or in dreams.Collective unconscious: This element of the unconscious manifests in universal themes the run through all human life. The idea of the cumulative unconscious assumes that the history of the human race, back to the most primitive times, lives on in every people.

Word combination test: This is a research method that Jung supplied to discover the complexes in the an individual unconscious. It included reading 100 words to someone, one in ~ a time, and also having the human being respond quickly with a indigenous of his or she own.

Psychological Types

According to Jung, people differ in certain straightforward ways, even though the instincts that drive us are the same. Jung distinguished two general attitudes–introversion and extraversion–and four functions–thinking, feeling, sensing, and intuiting:

Introvert: Inner-directed; requirements privacy and space; chooses solitude to recover energy; often reflective.Extravert: Outer-directed; requirements sociability; chooses world as a source of energy; regularly action-oriented.Thinking function: Logical; sees cause and effect relations; cool, distant, frank, and also questioning.Feeling function: Creative, warm, intimate; has actually a sense of valuing positive or negatively. (Note the this is no the very same as emotion.)Sensing function: Sensory; oriented towards the body and also senses; detailed, concrete, and present.

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Intuitive: Sees countless possibilities in situations; goes with hunches; impatient through earthy details; impractical; occasionally not present

The Myers-Briggs kind Indicator (MBTI) evaluate is a psychometric questionnaire designed to measure up psychological preferences in how civilization perceive the world and also make decisions. The original developers the the Myers-Briggs personality inventory were Katharine chef Briggs and her daughter, Isabel Briggs-Myers (1980, 1995). Having studied the work of Jung, the mother-daughter team rotate their attention in person behaviour right into a valuable application of the theory of emotional types. They started creating the indicator during people War II, believing that a expertise of personality choices would aid women that were beginning the commercial workforce for the an initial time to determine the type of wartime jobs that would certainly be “most comfortable and also effective.”

The initial questionnaire became the Myers-Briggs kind Indicator (MBTI), an initial published in 1962 and also emphasizing the worth of naturally emerging differences (CAPT, 2012). These preferences were extrapolation from the typological theory proposed by Jung and very first published in his 1921 publication Psychological Types (Adler & Hull, 2014). Jung theorized that there are four principal psychological functions by which we experience the world: sensation, intuition, feeling, and thinking, with among these four attributes being leading most that the time. The MBTI offers individuals through a measure of their leading preferences based on the Jungian functions.