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Bone markings room invaluable to the to know of separation, personal, instance bones and also bony pieces and aid in the knowledge of functional and also evolutionary anatomy. They are offered by clinicians and surgeons, especially orthopedists, radiologists, forensic scientists, detectives, osteologists, and also anatomists. Back the untrained eye may overlook bone markings together contours that the bone, they space not as simple. Bone markings play vital role in human and also animal anatomy and also physiology. The use of bone markings arrays from allowing joints to slide past each various other or lock skeletal in place, giving structural support to muscle and also connective tissue, and providing circumferential stabilization and protection come nerves, vessels, and connective tissue. Knowledge the importance of bone markings offers a new appreciation and also understanding the bony anatomy and also its sensible relationships with soft tissues.<1><2><3><4><5>

Common Bone Markings

Angles - spicy bony angulations that may serve as bony or soft tissue attachments but often are used for an exact anatomical description. Examples incorporate the superior, inferior, and acromial angles of the scapula and the superior, inferior, lateral angles of the occiput.

Body - This usually describes the largest, most significant segment that bone. Examples encompass the diaphysis or pillar of lengthy bones like the femur and also humerus.

Condyle - refers to a huge prominence, which frequently provides structural support to the overlying hyaline cartilage. It bears the brunt of the force exerted native the joint. Examples incorporate the knee joint (hinge joint), formed by the femoral lateral and also medial condyles, and the tibial lateral and medial condyles. Additionally, the occiput has an occipital condyle i beg your pardon articulates through atlas(C1) and accounts for about 25 levels of cervical flexion and extension. 

Crest - A increased or prominent part of the leaf of a bone. Crests are regularly the sites where connective tissue attaches muscle to bone. The iliac stakes is found on the ilium.

Diaphysis - refers to the main component of the tower of a lengthy bone. Long bones, consisting of the femur, humerus, and tibia, all have a shaft.

Epicondyle - A prominence that sit atop of a condyle. The epicondyle attaches muscle and connective organization to bone, offering support to this musculoskeletal system. Examples encompass the femoral medial and lateral epicondyles and also humeral medial and lateral epicondyles.

Epiphysis - The articulating segment the a bone, commonly at the bone"s proximal and also distal poles. The usually has actually a bigger diameter 보다 the obelisk (diaphysis). The epiphysis is an important for bone growth since it sits surrounding to the physeal line, additionally known as the growth plate.

Facet - A smooth, flat surface that develops a share with another flat bone or another facet, together producing a gliding joint. Examples can be viewed in the facet joints that the vertebrae, which enable for flexion and also extension the the spine. 

Fissure - An open slit in a bone the usually houses nerves and also blood vessels. Examples incorporate superior and also inferior orbit fissure.

Foramen - A hole through which nerves and blood vessels pass. Examples include supraorbital foramen, infraorbital foramen, and mental foramen on the cranium.

Fossa - A shallow depression in the bone surface. Here it may receive one more articulating bone or act to support mind structures. Examples incorporate trochlear fossa, posterior, middle, and also anterior cranial fossa.

Groove - A furrow in the bone surface that runs along the length of a vessel or nerve, providing room to avoid compression by nearby muscle or external forces. Examples incorporate a radial groove and also the groove for the transverse sinus.

Head - A rounded, prominent expansion of bone that forms part of a joint. It is separated native the tower of the bone by the neck. The head is usually extended in hyaline cartilage inside a synovial capsule. It is the key articulating surface ar with the nearby bone, forming a "ball-and-socket" joint.

Margin - The sheet of any type of flat bone. It deserve to be supplied to define a bone"s borders accurately. Because that example, the sheet of the temporal bone articulating through the occipital bone is referred to as the occipital margin that the temporal bone. And also vice versa, the sheet of the occipital bone articulating through the temporal bone is referred to as the temporal margin the the occipital bone.

Meatus - A tube-like channel the extends within the bone, i beg your pardon may provide passage and protection come nerves, vessels, and also even sound. Examples encompass external acoustic meatus and also internal auditory meatus.

Neck - The segment between the head and the column of a bone. It is frequently demarcated indigenous the head by the visibility of the physeal line in pediatric patients and the physeal scar (physeal line remnant) in adults. That is frequently separated into the operation neck and also anatomical neck. The anatomical neck, which may represent the old epiphyseal plate, is frequently demarcated through its attachments to capsular ligaments. The operation neck is often an ext distal and is demarcated by the site on the neck that is most commonly fractured. For example, in the humerus, the anatomical neck operation obliquely from the greater tuberosity to just inferior come the humeral head. The surgical neck runs horizontally and also a couple of centimeters distal come the humeral tuberosities.

Notch - A depression in a bone which often, but not always, offers stabilization to an adjacent articulating bone. The articulating bone will slide into and also out the the notch, guiding the range of motion of the joint. Examples include the trochlear notch on the ulna, radial notch that the ulna, suprasternal notch, and the mandibular notch.

Ramus - The curved part of a bone that gives structural support to the remainder of the bone. Examples include the superior/inferior pubic ramus and also ramus that the mandible.

Sinus - A cavity within any organ or tissue. Examples include paranasal sinuses and dural venous sinuses.

Spinous procedure - A raised, sharp elevation that bone where muscles and also connective organization attach. It is different than a normal process in the a spinous process is more pronounced.

Trochanter - A big prominence on the side of the bone. Some of the biggest muscle groups and also most thick connective tissues affix to the trochanter. The many notable examples are the greater and lesser trochanters that the femur.

Tuberosity - A moderate prestige where muscles and also connective tissues attach. Its duty is comparable to the of a trochanter. Examples incorporate the tibial tuberosity, deltoid tuberosity, and also ischial tuberosity.

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Tubercle - A small, rounded importance where connective tissues attach. Examples include the greater and lesser tubercle that the humerus.